CAN COUNTERFACTUAL THINKING BE USEFUL (AND ADAPTIVE)?
The study focuses on the relationship between counterfactual thinking and salutogenic personality characteristics. Using the Configural Frequency Analysis (CFA) of a sample of 259 women, the authors distinguish 3 types, representing the links of counterfactual thinking frequency with self-esteem, self-efficacy, reflective dimension of wisdom and optimism. Adaptiveness (usefulness) of counterfactual thinking was studied using the following variable: subjectively evaluated helpfulness of counterfactual thinking in solving future problems. With the application of the CFA, two types were found. The first is represented by the configuration of low helpfulness of counterfactual thinking related to low self-esteem, self-efficacy, reflective dimension of wisdom and optimism; the second has the configuration of high helpfulness of counterfactual thinking related to high self-esteem, self-efficacy, reflective dimension of wisdom and optimism. The second type indicates in particular possible usefulness of counterfactual thinking and emphasizes the need for its study within the personality context, as well as the study of inter-individual differences in counterfactual thinking.
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