ON THE NATURE OF INTENTIONAL REFERENCE
Speaker's reference is an intentional act directed, via an expression, at an object - an intentional object. The author of the paper tries to find an answer to the following question: What does a speaker refer to when he does not know what a description or a proper name used refers to? He argues that, if the speaker uses such a description, his reference is not directed at the referent of the description but at its meaning. If the speaker uses a proper name whose meaning is not known to him, he can refer neither to the referent nor to the meaning of that name.
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