LATEST HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF NANOTECHNOLOGY AS A TECHNOSCIENCE (Noveishaya istoria razvitia nanotekhnologii kak tekhnonauki)
Results of scientometric analysis of nanoscience are given, which allow outlining of three periods in its development: 1984-1994 - launch of basic research in this field, with the appearance of the notion 'nano'; 1994-2000 - publication of the earliest monographic works and spreading of the notion of 'nanotechnology', appearance of earliest advanced developments in the field; 2000-2007 - the explosive growth of science and popular literature on the relevant theme, building up the nanotechnology-related industry. It is shown that the nanotechnology specific is that research in this field is often pushed by an engineering task, while the research per se has a project-specific form, being the mission-oriented one, which is illustrated by research in chemical nano-assembly of transistors from carbon nano-tubes in order to produce a more sophisticated nanostructure. It is shown how nanotechnology attempts to use principles laid in the basis of natural processes, not reducing biological perceptions to physical ones. Broad perceptions of nanosystems and nanostructures constitute nano-ontology, a nano-portray of the world, which can be likened to systemic ontology. A new type of theoretical research in nanotechnoscience is discussed. It is shown why nanotechnology can be regarded as both scientific and technological field, and that such a dual orientation of nanotechnology makes one treat one's product as both a natural object and a natural and artificial system.
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