MAIN AND SECONDARY FUNCTIONS OF DERIVED VERBS IN ARABIC
The aim of the paper is to give an overview of different functions of derived verbs in Arabic. 'Qattala' and its historical variant 'qatala' are multiplicative or pluractional with originally plural object (secondary functions: iterative, habitual, durative, progressive, intensive) as well as causative, including factitive.'Conative' function of 'qatala' verb is a secondary feature of lexically perfective verbs conditioned by the main multiplicative function which conditions also the 'comitative' feature. Many 'qattala' and 'qatala' verbs have the same meaning as their class I counterparts or do not have class I forms - some of them are remnants of the original Present corresponding to 'Akkadian iparrasu'. Some 'taqattala' and 'taqatala' as well as 'iqtatala' (< *itqatala) and 'istaqtala' forms are not only mediopassive or simply middle/reflexive but also transitive with the same meaning as corresponding forms No. I, II, III and IV since they are remnants of ancient periphrastic constructions with the auxiliary *ta- 'to become, to be', viz. Present '*yataqattalu/yataqatalu' (preserved in Berber) and Present Perfect '*yaptarisu' (a cognate of 'Akkadian iptarasu'). Also 'inqatala' verbs continue ancient periphrastic construction with nV- 'to be'. Denominative verbs common in the II, III and the IV and X class are at the origin of 'declarative', 'estimative', 'benefactive', 'directional' (e.g. 'sa'ada' 'to go to upper Egypt', 'aymana' 'to go to Yemen') and other values conditioned by either factitive function or by inherent lexical meaning not to mention context. 'Aqtala' class contains not only causative and denominative verbs but also simple transitive verbs which are remnants of a conjugation with 'yuqtilu' Imperfect which have been reinterpreted as members of this class and attached to 'aqtala' Perfect. Some 'istaqtala' verbs go back to '*it(a)saqtala'. Classes No. II, III, IX, XI–XV are related.
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