Výklad a autorita bible v polemice mezi Janem Gersonem a Jakoubkem ze Stříbra z roku 1417
THE EXEGESIS AND AUTHORITY OF THE BIBLE IN THE POLEMIC BETWEEN JEAN GERSON AND JAKOUBEK OF STRIBRO IN 1417
The article compares two hermeneutical concepts of the Bible interpretation, which arose 1417 as a result of the polemic between the leading theologian at the Council of Constance Jean Gerson and the restorer of layman-chalice Jakoubek of Stribro. Even though Gerson confirms to the Utraquists that the Scripture is an unrivalled and sufficient source of the divine revelation, he emphasizes simultaneously that this is true only for a right interpreted biblical text. Only in this case the Scripture endures no counterweight in the human argumentation. His ten hermeneutical rules reveal that the bare Scripture (nuda Scriptura) is for him neither self-authenticating nor self-interpreting. And as Christ together with the Holy Spirit trusted the right sense of Scripture with the church, particularly with the primitive one, the interpreter must draw it from the ecclesiastical tradition. Otherwise he is arrogant and proud and his understanding arbitrary. Jakoubek, however, advocates the opposite: the exegete or reader, it can be even a layperson, should read out the right sense from the Scripture itself. On one side he assumes that the interpreter cannot evade the literal sense of Scripture, author of which the Holy Sprit is, but must take it seriously as an indisputable prerequisite in the spiritual sense. On the other side he recognizes in the Bible even a narrower principle of interpretation: Christ's living manner (praxis Christi) and that of his apostles. Thus the biblical sense, which is derived by the reader from the Bible itself, can become the 'judge' of the post-biblical tradition and the interpreting church, while according to Jakoubek the contemporary church fails at its judgment. It seems very probable that the difference between these two theologians has its root in the divergent attitude to the applicability of the previous hermeneutical tradition, e.g. that of Thomas of Aquin and Hugo of St. Victor. While Jakoubek seems to rest on it, Gerson might have abandoned it, as he passed the criterion of interpretation from within the text on to the church.
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