THE SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ROLE OF MUSLIM BROTHERHOODS AND RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES IN MODERN TURKEY (Rola spoleczno-polityczna bractw i wspólnot religijnych we wspólczesnej Turcji)
This article concerns the problem of Muslim brotherhoods (tarika) and religious communities (cemaat) in contemporary Turkey. Muslim brotherhoods for over 800 years had been the major feature of social and political life in Ottoman Empire. They were banned in 1925 as the Kemalists considered them to be the main force resisting the imposed laicism. At that time, Said Nursi created a religious community which advocated the restoration of Islamic ethics among Muslim society endangered by scepticism and agnosticism. Later on, Mehmed Zahid Kotku laid dawn the principles of the first Islam-orientated party in Turkey, the Party of National Salvation, headed by his disciple, Necmettin Erbakan. Kotku influenced the whole generation of Turkish politics, among others, a former Turkish president, Turgut Özal, and the current Turkish prime minister, Recep Tayyip Erdogan. Nowadays the most important Islam community is Fethullahci movement founded by Fethullah Gülen. It represents the moderate and liberal Islam, focusing generally on education the Muslim youth who will be able to implement the Islamic ethics in the social and political life of the democratic Turkey.
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