Tělo jako sarx
The body as sarx
The article attempts to revive the conception of the body in Ludwig Feuerbach and the young Marx. The aim is to show that Feuerbach produced a concept of embodiment which is to be distinguished from its conception in psychoanalysis and in political thought (the body as the object of bio-power) which prevail in contemporary post-Marxist theory. The difference between these two conceptions can be expressed thus: the Feuerbachian and young-Marxian understanding corresponds to the concept sarx (the natural body), while its conception in post-Marxist thought corresponds to the concept sóma (the body symbolised). Post-Marxist authors generally assume the correctness of Althusser’s rejection of this conception. It is for this reason that I examine Althusser’s critique of Feuerbach’s philosophy in its relation to the question of embodiment and I attempt to show that Althusser’s theory cannot comprehend Feuerbach’s most important discovery. In the final part I deal with Feuerbach as the first thinker of non-identity (Adorno’s term) and I look at his reflections on death as the hidden background of his living and real body. The conclusion is that Feuerbach introduces a conception of embodiment which cannot be completely incorporated into cultural and bio-political practices.