National Minorities in Contemporary Poland in the Light of Marginalization Theory
The problem of national minorities marginalization needs to be considered in a broader context than the case of other groups touched by this phenomenon. From sociological point of view marginalization by definition is a feature of national minorities because of their subordination to dominant group. It limits the opportunity of providing specific cultural needs that are representative for majority. In this sense, all national minorities are touched by ethnic-cultural marginalization. Social policy theory usually defines marginalization as a lack of equal access to welfare, labour market and education. According to this only few national minorities in Poland may be acknowledged as marginalized. The first group are the Roms who may be characterized as totally marginalized. Two other groups may be described as less educated what causes disadvantageous differences in their social structure in comparison to the structure of the whole society. In case of Belarussians it is a consequence of intensive polonisation of the better educated members of this group. In case of German minority, legal and simple work in Germany is valued more than higher social position in Poland.
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