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2005 | 26 | 97-114
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The complexity and solutions for the conflict in Sudan

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The conflict in Sudan began in February 2003 as two rebellious groups, the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA), with its political wing Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM), and The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) started to fight against their marginalization. These groups also wanted to participate in the Sudanese political life dominated by the Islamic inhabitants of the country. The rebels attacked military objects. The losses were serious enough to cause an immediate reaction from the government.. Attacks against civilian members of minorities were the main point of the conflict, but it soon appeared that there were numerous other antagonisms. First, the African Christians living in the south expressed separatist aspirations. However, the South-North front broke down in 1991, when some Muslims opposed the National Islamic Front, the Sudanese ruling party. In 1997 a cease fire was signed, but it did not last for long. In 2002 peace talks between the SPLA and the government started. At the beginning of 2003 the government undertook an operation against the rebels. Despite the U.S. help, the conflict flared up again in 2003 and although it has now lasted for at least 22 years, it will not be finished soon. The rebels are still fighting for independence. On the other side of the conflict there are armed units called Janjawid supported by the Sudanese military forces. The main source of this conflict is economic. Both sides are backed by a number of other countries. Russia, China, Iraq, Libya, Kazakhstan, Yemen, Iran support the government, while Ethiopia, Eritrea and Uganda supply the rebels.The African Union is involved in attempts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict. But international organizations do not pay enough attention to the problem of Darfour, where human rights are violated daily. People are arrested, raped, and killed. According to Amnesty International, many people are arrested just for expressing sympathy for the rebels, including those imprisoned in refugee camps who have contacts with UN observers or other international organizations.
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  • W. Stankiewicz, Uniwersytet Gdanski, Katedra Prawa Miedzynarodowego Publicznego, ul. W. Andersa 27, 81-824 Sopot, Poland
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