RIGHT-WING EXTREMISM: OPERATIONALIZATION, CONSTRUCTION OF THE SCALE AND RESULTS OF EMPIRICAL RESEARCH (Pravicovy extremismus: Operacionalizace jevu, konstrukce skaly a vysledky empirickeho vyzkumu)
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This article presents the results of research conducted as part of a project of the Czech Ministry of Interior. Its main objective was to explore the risk level of right-wing extremism in the Czech Republic. One of the project's phases was a survey (n = 2056, population of people older than 15 years, probabilistic sampling). Through face-to-face interviews, we discovered that 2.5 % of inhabitants in the Czech Republic go along with the ideas of the ultra-right wing and are also willing to support radical political parties in elections. The percentage of people who support ideas typical for right-wing extremism and moreover are willing to publically support political parties which offer radical solutions (through participation in right-wing demonstrations, or by helping with the organization of their events) reaches 6 %. Our research shows that the main risk (from the point of view of the combat against right-wing extremism) represents the latter group. The research also reveals that the sources of extremism are multiple and that this phenomenon encompasses macro-social as well as micro-social issues. From the macro-social point of view, it is possible to point to influences like unemployment, the level of education, the atmosphere in the society, the individual's ability to integrate and reach his/her goals etc. In the micro-sociological frame of the reference, it was found that extremism is influenced, for example, by satisfaction with family relationships, ability for self-realization, material provision, and the extent of personal experience with minorities and foreigners. Some psychological and socio-psychological factors apply as well (e.g. temperament, stereotypes and prejudices).
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