COMMERCIAL EDUCATION IN GALICIA
The paper discusses the development of economic schools in 'Galicja', the southern part of Poland remaining under Austrian rule in the years 1772-1918. In the period 1772-1868, the first three educational institutions were established: 'Szkola Realna' (Real School) at Brody (1818-1853), turned later on into a classical 'gimnazjum', Real-Commercial School, later Commercial Department of the Technical Academy in Lwów (Lviv) (1817-1876) and the substitute of a commercial school in the form of lectures on economic matters at the Technical Institute in Kraków (1836-1878). Economic education developed more extensively during the period of autonomy for 'Galicja' (1868-1918). This was a period when free-market economy was introduced (1859) and a liberal constitution adopted (1867). As for economic schools, a major role was played by two Academies of Commerce, in Lwów and Kraków. The one in Lwów , established in 1899, developed from a supplementary commercial school active from 1871 onwards. The academy in Kraków evolved from the School of Commerce, established in 1882. Both academies had a four-year cycle of instruction, followed an Austrian curriculum, and were among the 21 institutions in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy that offered the highest type of economic education.. Associated with the academy in Kraków were two commercial schools of a lower (secondary) level: the Two-Grade Commercial School for Men and Women, and the evening Merchant School for shop assistants. The most popular type of commercial education in the Habsburg monarchy were the two-grade commercial schools, the total number of which in 1914 amounted to 89. There were 13 such schools in 'Galicja'. There were about 25 supplementary merchant schools in Galicja. Besides that, the commercial academies and two-grade commercial schools organized supplementary courses. Economic issues were taught at the universities in Lwów and Kraków, as well as at the Lwów Polytechnic. The subsequent sections of the current paper are devoted to the following issues: the teaching curricula and syllabuses in particular types of commercial schools; the textbooks used in such schools, first written in German and then also in Polish; the system of practical training (apprenticeships); the teaching aids used, especially in the physics and commodity science classes; the model specimens of different types of economic letters used; the presence of typewriters and calculating machines; and the library collections of books connected with economic issues. A distinct section is devoted to the teaching staff of economic schools. Commercial education in Galicja had a major impact on economic education in independent Poland after 1918.
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