LEGAL ASPECTS OF THE ACT ON THE SHAPING OF AGRARIAN SYSTEM (PRESENTED AT THE HISTORICAL OUTLINE OF TURNOVER IN AGRICULTURAL PROPERTY)
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Despite its title, the Act on the Shaping of Agrarian System of April 11, 2003 actually regulates the transfer of ownership rights to agricultural property. The Act's solutions cover just a fragment, although an important one, of the agrarian system, i.e. ownership relations. However, even within this small fragment of the agrarian system the Act fails to introduce coherent and mature legal solutions serving to actively and rationally support desirable changes in the agrarian structure of farms. It should be noted that the Act does not envisage any legal instruments that could prevent irrational division of farms. As far as the prevention of excessive concentration of land is concerned the Act indirectly introduces a 300-hectare limit but envisages no absolute ban on the enlargement of farms beyond a definite acreage. In addition, the Act widens, in an unprecedented way, the circle of persons considered to possess the necessary theoretical 'qualifications' to conduct agricultural activity, which practically allows every person that has any type of secondary-school or higher education to buy arable land. The possibility created for the Agricultural Property Agency (ANR) to interfere (via pre-emption and the right to purchase?) in every purchase of agricultural property sold under a contract, and the final character of its decisions, which cannot be appealed against, put a question mark over the equilibrium between the sides and the constitutional right of citizens to file complaints concerning the activity of a state agency.
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