Anaerobic capacity of upper extremity muscles of male and female swimmers
Study aim: To assess the anaerobic capacity of upper extremity muscles of male and female swimmers by applying two exercise tests.Material and methods: Male and female swimmers (n = 9 and 6, respectively), aged 19 - 23 years and having training experience of over 10 years, were subjected to two tests: 30-s Wingate for upper extremities and semitethered swimming test. The following variables were determined: body fat content (from 4 skinfolds), maximum power output, heart rate (HR) and lactate (LA) concentration in blood.Results: Relative power outputs in the Wingate test and swimming force in semi-tethered swimming test (maximum and mean) were significantly (p<0.001) higher in male than in the female swimmers. Maximum LA concentrations were higher in male than in female swimmers, but maximum LA values related to relative power output were in both genders alike. Maximum force produced in the semi-tethered swimming test was strongly (r = 0.765; p<0.001) correlated with maximum relative power output in the Wingate test.Conclusions: Both tests may be interchangeably applied to determine the anaerobic capacity of upper extremity muscles in swimmers.
- Avlonitou E. (1996) Maximal lactate values following competitive performance varying according to age, sex and swimming style. J. SportsMed.Phys.Fitn. 36:24-30.
- Bonifazi M., G. Martelli, L. Marugo, F. Sardella, G. Carli (1993) Blood lactate accumulation in top level swimmers following competition. J. SportsMed.Phys.Fitn. 33:13-18.
- Bonifazi M., F. Sardella, C. Lupo (2000) Preparatory versus main competitions: differences in performances, lactate responses and pre-competition plasma cortisol concentrations in elite male swimmers. Eur.J. Appl.Physiol. 82:368-373.[Crossref]
- Darby L. A., B. C. Yaekle (2000) Physiological responses during two types of exercise performed on land and in the water. J. SportsMed.Phys.Fitn. 40:303-311.
- Durnin J. V. G. A., J. Womersley (1974) Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16 to 72 years. Br.J. Nutr. 32:77-95.[Crossref]
- Gastin P. B. (1994) Quantification of anaerobic capacity. Scand.J. Med.Sci.Sports 4:91-112.
- Gratas-Delanarche A., R. Le Cam, P. Delamarche (1994) Lactate and catecholamine responses in male and female sprinters during Wingate test. Eur.J. Appl.Physiol. 68:362-366.[Crossref]
- Green S. (1994) A definition and systems view of anaerobic capacity. Eur.J. Appl.Physiol. 69:168-173.[Crossref]
- Greenwood J. D., G. E. Moses, F. M. Bernardino (2008) Intensity of exercise recovery, blood lactate disappearance, and subsequent swimming performance. J. Sports Sci. 26:29-34.[Crossref][WoS]
- Hawley J. A., M. M. Williams (1991) Relationship between upper body anaerobic power and freestyle swimming performance. Int.J. Sports Med. 12:1-5.[Crossref][PubMed]
- Hübner-Woźniak E., A. Kosmol, G. Lutosławska, E. Z. Bem (2004) Anaerobic performance of arms and legs in male and female free style wrestlers. J. Sci.Med.Sport 7:473-480.[Crossref]
- Inbar O., O. Bar-Or, J. S. Skinner (1996) The Wingate Anaerobic Test. Human Kinetics.
- Kosmol A., E. Hübner-Woźniak, P. Słomiński, W. Gromisz, R. Białecki (2004) Test Wingate oraz test na uwięzi (STS) w ocenie wydolności beztlenowej pływaków. In: A. Kuder, K. Perkowski, D. Śledziewski (eds.) Proces doskonalenia treningu i walki sportowej. AWF, Warszawa, pp. 45-47.
- Little N. G. (1991) Physical performance attributes of junior and senior women, juvenile, junior and senior men judocas. J. Sports Med.Phys.Fitn. 31:510-520.
- Miller E. A. J., J. D. MacDougall, M. A. Tarnopolsky (1993) Gender differences In strength and muscle fiber characteristics. Eur.J. Appl.Physiol. 66:254-262.[Crossref]
- Morouco P., S. Soares, J. P. Vilas-Boas (2008) Association between 30sec maximal tethered swimming and swimming performance in front crawl. North American Congress on Biomechanics, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
- Nindl B. C., M. T. Mahar, E. A. Harman (1995) Lower and upper body anaerobic performance in male and female adolescent athletes. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 27:235-241.[PubMed]
- Okhuwa T., M. Miyamura, Y. Andou (1988) Sex differences in lactate and glycerol levels during maximal aerobic and anaerobic running. Eur.J. Appl.Physiol. 57:746-752.
- Olbrecht J. (2000) The science of winning. Planning, periodizing and optimizing swim training. Swimshop, Luton England.
- Papoti M., E. B. Martins, S. A. Cunha, A. M. Zagatto, C. A. Gobatto (2007) Effects of taper on swimming force and swimmers performance after an experimental ten-week training program. J. Strength Cond.Res. 21:538-542.
- Pendergast D., P. Zamparo, P. E. di Prampero (2003) Energy balance of human locomotion in water. Eur.J. Appl.Physiol. 90:377-386.[Crossref]
- Seiler S., J. J. De Koning, C. Foster (2007) The fall and rise of the gender difference in elite anaerobic performance 1952-2006. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 39:534-540.[WoS]
- Weber C. L., M. Chia, O. Inbar (2006) Gender differences in anaerobic power of the arms and legs - a scaling issue. Med. Sci.Sports Exerc. 38:129-137.[PubMed][Crossref]
- West S. A., M. J. Drummond, J. M. Vanness (2005) Blood lactate and metabolic responses to controlled frequency breathing during graded swimming. J. Strength Cond.Res. 19:772-776.