The effect of milk consumption on bone mass density in obese and thin adult women
Study aim: To assess the effect of milk consumption lasting two months on BMD of obese and thin young women.Material and methods: A group of 38 untrained women (18 obese [O] - BMI>30, and 20 thin [T] - BMI<20), aged 20 - 25, years participated in the study. They were randomly assigned into BMI-matched experimental [E] or control [C] groups containing 9 obese and 10 thin subjects each. Experimental groups were given 2 glasses of milk (600 mg/day of calcium; fat content 1.5%) for 2 months, 3 days a week. At the beginning (Pre) and at the end (Post) of the study, bone mass density (BMD) at the hip and spine (L2-L4) was measured using DEXA technique, and oestrogens, calcium and phosphorus were determined in serum. Body fat content (%F) and lean body mass (LBM) were determined using the bioimpedance (BIA) technique.Results: In both experimental groups BMD significantly (p<0.05 - 0.001) increased in both areas by 4 - 7%. In the TE group, %F significantly (p<0.05) decreased by 8% and LBM significantly (p<0.001) increased by 3%. Serum calcium decreased in all groups except OC by 3 - 5% (p<0.05 - 0.01) and oestrogens markedly increased in all groups except TC.Conclusion: The data suggest that adequate milk intake (thus calcium) in adolescence is an indicator of attaining adequate bone mass density, thus preventing the risk of osteoporosis.
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