PL EN


Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2012 | 31 | 105-113
Tytuł artykułu

Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF): Its Mechanisms and Effects on Range of Motion and Muscular Function

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) is common practice for increasing range of motion, though little research has been done to evaluate theories behind it. The purpose of this study was to review possible mechanisms, proposed theories, and physiological changes that occur due to proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. Four theoretical mechanisms were identified: autogenic inhibition, reciprocal inhibition, stress relaxation, and the gate control theory. The studies suggest that a combination of these four mechanisms enhance range of motion. When completed prior to exercise, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation decreases performance in maximal effort exercises. When this stretching technique is performed consistently and post exercise, it increases athletic performance, along with range of motion. Little investigation has been done regarding the theoretical mechanisms of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, though four mechanisms were identified from the literature. As stated, the main goal of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation is to increase range of motion and performance. Studies found both of these to be true when completed under the correct conditions. These mechanisms were found to be plausible; however, further investigation needs to be conducted. All four mechanisms behind the stretching technique explain the reasoning behind the increase in range of motion, as well as in strength and athletic performance. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation shows potential benefits if performed correctly and consistently.
Wydawca

Rocznik
Tom
31
Strony
105-113
Opis fizyczny
Daty
wydano
2012-03-01
online
2012-04-03
Twórcy
autor
  • Exercise Science Department, Willamette University, Salem, Oregon, USA
  • Exercise Science Department, Willamette University, Salem, Oregon, USA
autor
  • Exercise Science Department, Willamette University, Salem, Oregon, USA
autor
  • Exercise Science Department, Willamette University, Salem, Oregon, USA
Bibliografia
  • Bonnar BP, Deivert RG, Gould TE. The relationship between isometric contraction durations during hold-relax stretching and improvement of hamstring flexibility. J Sport Med Phys Fit, 2004; 44(3):288-226.
  • Bradley PS, Olsen PD, Portas MD. The effect of static, ballistic, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on vertical jump performance. J Strength Cond Res / Natl Str Cond Assoc J, 2007; 21(1):223-226[Crossref]
  • Caplan N, Rogers R., Parr MK, Hayes PR. The effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and static stretch training on running mechanics. J Strength Cond Res / Natl Str Cond Assoc J, 2009; 23(4):1175-1180[Crossref]
  • Chalmers G. Do Golgi tendon organs really inhibit muscle activity at high force levels to save muscles from injury, and adapt with strength training? Sports Biomech, 2002; 1(2): 239-249[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Etnyre BR, Abraham LD. H-reflex during static stretching and two variations of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol, 1986; 63(2): 174-179[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Etnyre BR, Lee EJ. Chronic and acute flexibility of men and women using three different stretching techniques. Res Q Exerc Sport, 1988; 59(3): 222-228[Crossref]
  • Feland JB, Marin HN. Effect of submaximal contraction intensity in contract-relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching. Brit J Sport Med, 2004; 38(4):e18[Crossref]
  • Feland JB, Myrer JW, Merrill RM. Acute changes in hamstring flexibility: PNF versus static stretch in senior athletes. Phys Ther Sport, 2001; 2:186-193
  • Funk DC, Swank AM, Mikla BM, Fagen TA, Farr BK. Impact of Prior Exercise on Hamstring Flexibility: A Comparison of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation and Static Stretching. Natl Str Cond Assoc J, 2003; 17(3): 489-492
  • Laporte Y, Lloyd DPC. Nature and significance of the reflex connection established by large afferent fibers of muscular origin. Am J Physiol, 1952; 169: 609-621
  • Lucas RC, Koslow R. Comparative study of static, dynamic, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching techniques on flexibility. Percept Motor Skill, 1984; 58(2): 615-618[Crossref]
  • Magnusson SP. Passive properties of human skeletal muscle during stretching maneuvers. Scand J Med Sci Sport, 1998; 8(2): 65-77
  • Magnusson SP, Simonsen EB, Aagard P. Mechanical and physiological responses to stretching with and without preisometric contraction in human skeletal muscle. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 1996;77:373-378
  • Marek SM, Cramer JT, Fincher AL, Massey LL, Dangelmaier SM, Purkayastha S, Fitz KA, Culbertson JY. Clinical Studies - Acute Effects of Static and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching on Muscle Strength and Power Output. J Ath Training, 2005; 40(2): 94
  • Mazzullo JM. The gate theory of pain. Br Med J, 1978; 2(6137): 586-587
  • McCarthy PW, Olsen JP, Smeby IH. Effects of contract-relax stretching procedures on active range of motion of the cervical spine on the transverse plane. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon), 1997; 12(2): 136-138[Crossref]
  • Melzack R. Pain: Past, Present and Future. Can J Exp Psychol, 1993; 47(4): 615-629[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Mikolajec K, Waskiewicz Z, Maszczyk A, Bacik B, Kurek P, Zając A. Effects of Stretching and Strength Exercises on Speed and Power Abilities in Male Basketball Players. Isokinet Exerc Sci, 2012 20: 1-22[WoS]
  • Nelson AG, Chambers RS, McGown CM, Penrose KW. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation versus weight training for enhancement of muscular strength and athletic performance. J Orthopedic Sport Phys, 1986; 7(5): 250-253[Crossref]
  • Nelson AG, Kokkonen J, Arnall DA. Acute Muscle Stretching Inhibits Muscle Strength and Endurance. J Strength Cond Res, 2005; 19(2): 338-343[PubMed][WoS]
  • Neuroscience Online. Retrieved November 1st 2011, from
  • Rowlands AV, Marginson VF, Lee J. Chronic flexibility gains: effect of isometric contraction duration during proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching techniques. Res Q Exerc Sport, 2003; 74(1):47-51[Crossref]
  • Sharman M, Cresswell A, Riek S. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching: Mechanisms and Clinical Implications. Sport Med, 2006; 36(11): 929-939[Crossref]
  • Spernoga SG, Uhl TL, Arnold BL, Gansneder BM. Duration of Maintained Hamstring Flexibility After a One-Time, Modified Hold-Relax Stretching Protocol. J Athl Training, 2011; 36(1): 44-48
  • The Nervous Statement. Retrieved October 30th 2011, from
  • Wallin D, Ekblom B, Grahn R, Nordenborg T. Improvement of muscle flexibility: a comparison between two techniques. Am J Sport Med, 1985; 13(4): 263-268[Crossref]
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
Identyfikatory
Identyfikator YADDA
bwmeta1.element.-psjd-doi-10_2478_v10078-012-0011-y
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.