Somatotype is More Interactive with Strength than Fat Mass and Physical Activity in Peripubertal Children
The purpose of this study was to analyse the interaction between somatotype, body fat and physical activity in prepubescent children. This was a cross-sectional study design involving 312 children (160 girls, 152 boys) aged between 10 and 11.5 years old (10.8 ± 0.4 years old). Evaluation of body composition was done determining body mass index and body fat by means of skin-fold measurements, using the method described by Slaughter. Somatotype was computed according to the Carter's method. Physical activity was assessed with the Baecke questionnaire. The physical activity assessment employed sets of curl-ups, push-ups, standing broad jump, medicine ball throw, handgrip strength and Margaria-Kalamen power stair. There were negative associations for body fat, endomorphy and mesomorphy with curl-ups, push-ups and broad jump tests and positive associations with ball throw, handgrip strength and Margaria-Kalamen power tests. The associations for ectomorphy were the inverse of those for endomorphy and mesomorphy. Non obese children presented higher values for curl-ups, push-ups and standing broad jump. In medicine ball throw, handgrip strength and Margaria-Kalamen power test obese children presented higher scores, followed by children who were overweight. The mesoectomorphic boys and ectomesomorphic girls performed higher in all tests. The morphological typology presented more interactions with strength than % of body fat and physical activity. These data seem to suggest that the presence/absence of certain physical characteristics is crucial in the levels of motor provision in prepubescent children.
- Andersen L, Hasseltrom H, Gronfeldt V, Hansen S, Karsten K. The relationship between physical fitness and clustered risk, and tracking of clustered risk from adolescence to young adulthood: Eight years follow-up in the Danish Youth and Sport Study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act, 2004; 1: 6[PubMed][Crossref]
- Artero E, España-Romero V, Ortega F, Jiménez-Pavón D, Ruiz J, Vicente-Rodríguez G, Bueno M, Marcos A, Gómez-Martínez S, Urzanqui A, González-Gross M, Moreno L, Gutiérrez A, Castillo M. Health-related fitness in adolescents: underweight, and not only overweight, as an influencing factor. The AVENA study. Scand J Med Sci Spor, 2010; 20(3): 418-427[WoS]
- Baecke J, Burema J, Frijiters J. A short questionnaire for the measurement of habitual physical activity in epidemiological studies. Am J Clin Nutr, 1982; 36(5): 936-942
- Casajús J, Leivia M, Villarroya A, Legaz A, Moreno L. Physical performance and school physical education in overweight Spanish children. Ann Nutr Metab, 2007; 51(3): 288-296[WoS][PubMed]
- Castelli D, Valley J. The relationship of physical fitness and motor competence to physical activity: Chapter 3. J Teach Phys Educ, 2007; 26: 358-374
- Castro-Piñero J, González-Montesinos J, Mora J, Keating X, Girela-Rejón M, Sjöström M, Ruiz J. Percentile values for muscular strength field tests in children aged 6 to 17 years: influence of weight status. J Strength Cond Res, 2009; 23(8): 2295-2310
- Cepero M, López R, Suárez-Llorca C, Andreucabrera E, Rojas F. Fitness test profiles in children aged 8-12 years old in Granada (Spain). J Hum Sport Exerc, 2011; 6(1): 135-146[Crossref]
- Cole T, Billizzi M, Flegal K, Dietz W. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. Brit Med J, 2000; 320(6): 1240-1243[Crossref]
- Deforche B, Lefevre J, De Bourdeaudhui I, Hills A, Duquet W, Bouckaert J. Physical fitness and physical activity in obese and nonobese Flemish youth. Obes Res, 2003; 11: 434-441.[PubMed][Crossref]
- D'Hont E, Deforche B, Bourdeaudhuij I, Lenoir M. Relationship between motor skill and Body Mass Index in 5-to 10-year-old children. Adapt Phys Act Q, 2009; 26: 21-37
- Dumith S, Ramires V, Souza M, Moraes D, Petry F, Oliveira E, Ramires S, Hallal P. Overweight/Obesity and physical fitness among children and adolescents. J Phys Act Health, 2010; 7: 641-648[PubMed]
- Fogelholm M, Stigman S, Huisman T, Metsämuuronen J. Physical fitness in adolescents with normal weight and overweight. Scand J Med Sci Sport, 2008; 18(2): 162-170
- Heath H, Carter L. Growth and somatotype patterns of Manus children, Territory of Papua and New Guinea: Application of a modified somatotype method to the study of growth patterns. Am J Phys Anthropol, 1971; 35(1): 49-67[Crossref]
- Hands B, Larkin D, Parker H, Straker L, Perry M. The relationship among physical activity, motor competence and health- related fitness in 14-year-old adolescents. Scand J Med Sci Sport, 2009; 19(5): 655-663[WoS][Crossref]
- Jakšić D, Cvetković M. Neural network analysis of somatotype differences among males related to the manifestation of motor abilities. Acta Kinesiologica, 2009; 3(1): 107-113
- Lennox A, Pienaar A, Wilders C. Physical fitness and the physical activity status of 15-year-old adolescents in a semi-urban community. S Afr J Res Sport Phys Educ Recreation, 2008; 30(1): 59-73
- Loko J, Aule R, Sikkut T, Ereline J, Viru A. Age differences in growth and physical abilities in trained and untrained girls 10-17 years of age. Am J Hum Biol, 2003; 15: 72-77
- Malina R, Bouchard C. Growth maturation and physical activity. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics. 1991
- Malina R, Bouchard C, Bar-Or O. Growth, maturation and physical activity. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics. 2004
- Martínez-Gómez D, Welk G, Puertollano M, del-Campo J, Moya J, Marcos A, Veiga O. Associations of physical activity with muscular fitness in adolescents. Scand J Med Sci Sport, 2011; 21(2): 310-318[Crossref]
- Reis VM, Machado JV, Fortes MS, Fernandes PR, Silva AJ, Dantas PS, Filho JF. Evidence for higher heritability of somatotype compared to body mass index in female twins. J Physiol Anthropol, 2007; 26(1): 9-14[Crossref][PubMed]
- Sharkey, BJ. Fitness & Health. Hong Kong: Human Kinetics. 2002
- Shukla M, Venugopal R, Mitra M. A cross sectional study of body composition somatotype and motor quality of rural and urban boys of Chhattisgarh. Int J Fitness, 2009; 5(1): 1-7
- Slaughter M, Lohman T, Boileau R, Horswill C, Stillman R, VanLoan M, Bemben D. Skinfold equations for estimation of body fatness in children and youth. Hum Biol, 1988; 60(5): 709-723[PubMed]
- Stodden D, Goodwway J, Langendorfer S, Roberton M, Rudisill M, et al. A developmental perspective on the role of motor skill competence in physical activity: An emergent relationship. Quest, 2008; 60: 290-306[Crossref]
- Suchomel A. Relation between anthropometric somatotype and motor performance in prepubescent and pubescent Czech. Anthropologie, 2002; 40(2): 193-201.
- Tanner JM. Growth at adolescence. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. 1962.
- Tovar G, Poveda J, Pinilla M, Lobelo F. Relationship between overweight, physical activity and physical fitness in school-aged boys in Bogotá Colombia. Arch Latinoam Nutr, 2008; 58(3): 265-273[PubMed]
- Wrotniak B, Epstein L, Dorn J, Jones K, Kondilis V. The relationship between motor proficiency and physical activity in children. Pediatrics, 2006; 118(6): 1758-1765[Crossref]
- Xianwen S, Ailing L, Yanping L, Xiaoqi H, Lin D, Jun M, Guifa X, Ying L, Hongwei G, Guansheng, M. The association of weight status with physical fitness among Chinese children. Int J Pediatr, 2010; Article ID 515414, doi:10.1155/2010/515414515-414.[Crossref]
- Zak S, Szopa J. Effects of diversified motor activity on the level of motor fitness in children and Youth from Cracow (Poland). J Hum Kinetics, 2001; 6: 47-58.