Factors Determining Participation in Leisure Time Physical Activity among Former Athletes and Male non Athletes
The aim of the study was to compare the impact of socioeconomic factors and self-rated health on participation in leisure time physical activity (LTPA) among former athletes and male non athletes. In the spring-summer of 1997 - 2002, two groups of males between the ages of 18 - 51 years were enrolled in the study: former athletes (n=175) and men without any (past or present) competitive sports experience (n=197). Sample selection was deliberate according to the "easy access" criterion. An anonymous, postal self-return survey included questions concerning the variables of frequency, time spent on LTPA and form of participation in LTPA, socioeconomic variables (age, marital status, residence, educational level, occupation, income level) and selfrated health (categories: very good, good, moderate, poor and very poor). Statistical analysis of the study included test of differences between two structural components and X2 test. In both groups, poor participation in LTPA was significantly associated with a negative self-rated health and low socioeconomic status (blue-collar work or unemployment, low income, low educational level), and in the group of men without any competitive sports experience, also with the age range of 35 - 51 years, and residence in a rural area. Furthermore, the impact of poor socioeconomic status on participation of men in LTPA was found to be weaker among former athletes than in men without any past competitive sports experience. The results of the study indicate that the following are necessary to improve participation of men in LTPA: propagation of competitive sports among boys and young men, and elimination of socioeconomic barriers for their physical activity.
- Allison K. R. Predictors of inactivity: an analysis of the Ontario Health Survey. Can J Public Health, 1996. 87: 354-358.[PubMed]
- Bae S., Urrutia-Rojas X., Patel D., et al. Comparison oh Health Behaviors Among Single- and Multiple-member Households. Am J Health Behav, 2007. 31(5): 514-525.[Crossref]
- Barengo NC., Hu G., Lakka T. A., et al. Low physical activity as a predictor for total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men and women in Finland. Eur Heart J, 2004. 25: 2204-2211.[Crossref]
- Barnekow-Bergkvist M., Hedberg G., Janlert U., et al. Physical activity pattern in men and women at the ages of 16 and 34 and development of physical activity from adolescence to adulthood. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 1996. 6:359-370.
- Bijnen F. C., Feskens E. J., Caspersen C. J., et al. Baseline and previous physical activity in relation to mortality in elderly men: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Am J Epidemiol, 1999.150:1289-1296.
- Bopp M., Wilcox S., Laken M., et al. Factors associated with physical activity among African-American men and women. Am J Prev Med, 2006. 30(4): 340-346.[Crossref]
- Brown D. W., Ballur L. S., Heath G. W., et al. Association between recommended levels of physical activity and health-related quality of life. Findings from the 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. Prev Med, 2003. 37: 520-528.[Crossref]
- Caspersen C. J., Merritt R. K. Trends in physical activity patterns among older adults: The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1986-1990. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1992. 24(4): 526.
- Chung Y. L., Seon Y. H., Ok. K. H. Factors Associated with Physical Activity among Korean Men and Women. Am J Health Behav, 2007. 31(5): 484-494.
- Dowda M., Ainsworth B. E., Addy C. L., et al. Correlates of physical activity among US young adults, 18 to 30 years of age, from NHANES III. Ann Behav Med, 2003. 26(1): 15-23.[Crossref]
- Droomers M., Schrijvers C. T., Mackenbach J. P. Educational level and decrease in leisure time physical activity: predictors from the longitudinal GLOBE study. J Epidemiol Community Health, 2001. 55: 562-568.[PubMed][Crossref]
- Emmons K. M., Marcus B. H., Linnan L., et al. Mechanisms in multiple risk factor interventions: smoking, physical activity, and dietary fat intake among manufacturing workers: Working Well Research Group. Am J Prev Med, 1994. 23(4): 481-489.[Crossref]
- Ferrucci L., Izmirlian G., Leveille S., et al. Smoking, physical activity, and active life expectancy. Am J Epidemiol, 1999. 149: 645-653.[Crossref]
- Folsom A. R., Cook T. C., Sprafka J. M., et al. Differences in leisure-time physical activity levels between blacks and whites in population-based samples: the: the Minnesota Heart Survey. J Behav Med, 1991. 14(1): 1-9.[Crossref]
- Haapanen N., Miilunpalo S., Vuori I., et al. Characteristics of leisure time physical activity associated with decreased risk risk of premature all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men. Am J Epidemiol, 1996. 143: 870-880.[Crossref][PubMed]
- Haapanen-Nemi N., Miilunpalo S., Pasanen M., et al. The impact of smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity on the use of Hospital services. Am J Public Health, 1999. 89: 691-698.[Crossref]
- Hirvensalo M., Rantanen T., Heikinen E. Mobility Difficulties and Physical Activity as Predictors of Mortality and Loss of Independence in the Community-Living Older People. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2000a. 48: 493-498.[PubMed]
- Hirvensalo M., Lintunen T., Rantanen T. The continuity of physical activity - a retrospective and prospective study among older people. Scan J Med Sci Sports, 2000b. 10: 37-41.[Crossref]
- Kaleta D., Makowiec-Dąbrowska T., Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk E., et al. Physical activity and self-perceived health status. Int J of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2006. 19(1): 61-69.
- Kampert J. B., Blair S. N., Barlow C. E., et al. Physical activity, physical fitness, and all-cause and cancer mortality: a prospective study of men and women. Ann Epidemiol, 1996. 6(5): 452-457.[Crossref]
- Kaplan G. A., Strawbridge W. J., Cohen R., et al. Natural history of leisure time physical activity and its correlates: association with mortality from all causes and cardiovascular disease over 28 years. Am J Epidemiol, 1996. 144: 793-797.[Crossref]
- Kaplan M. S., Newsom J. T., McFarland B. H., et al. Demographic and psychosocial correlates of physical activity in late life. Am J Prev Med, 2001. 21(4): 306-312.[Crossref]
- Kepka D., Ayala G. X., Cherrington A. Do Latino Immigrants Link Self-rated with BMI and Health Behaviors? Am J Health Behav, 2007. 31(5): 535-544.[Crossref][PubMed]
- King A. C., Blair S. N., Bilds D. E., et al. Determinants of physical activity and interventions in adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1992. 24 (Suppl. 6): S221-36.
- Laaksonen M., Prättalä R., Karisto A. Patterns of unhealthy behaviour in Finland. Eur J Public Health, 2001a. 11(3): 294-300.[PubMed][Crossref]
- Laaksonen M., Mcalister A., Laatikainen T. et al. Do health behaviour and psychosocial risk factors explain the European East-West gap in health status? Eur J Public Health, 2001b. 11: 65-73.[PubMed]
- Leigh J. P., Fries J. F. Health habits, health care use, and costs in a sample of retirees. Inquiry, 1992. 29(1): 44-54.
- Leveille S. G., Guralnik J. M., Ferrucci L., et al. Ageing successfully until death in old age: opportunities for increasing active life expectance. Am J Epidemiol, 1999. 149: 654-664.[Crossref]
- Macera C. A., Croft J. B., Brown D. R., et al. Predictors of adopting leisure-time physical activity among a biracial community cohort. Am J Epidemiol, 1995. 142(6): 629-635.
- Malmberg J., Mülunpalo S., Pasanen M., et al. Characteristics of leisure time physical activity associated with risk of decline in perceived-health - a 10-years follow-up of middle-aged and elderly men and women. Prev Med, 2005. 4: 141-150.
- Margetts B. M., Rogers E., Widhal K., et al. Relationship between attitudes to health, body weight and physical activity and level of physical activity in a nationally representative sample in the European Union. Public Health Nutr, 1999. 2(1A): 97-103.
- Martinez-Gonzales M. A., Varo J. J., Santos J. L., et al. Prevalance of physical activity during leisure time in the European Union. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2001. 33: 1142-1146.
- Menotti A., Amici E., Gambeli G. C., et al. Life expectancy in Italian track and field athletes. Eur J Epidemiol, 1990. 6: 257-260.[Crossref]
- Molarius A., Berglund K., Eriksson Ch., et al. Socioeconomic condition, lifestyle factors, and self-rated health among men and women in Sweden. Eur J Public Health 2006. 17(2): 125-133.
- Myers J., Kayakha A., George S., et al. Fitness versus physical activity patterns in predicting mortality in men. Am J Med, 2004. 117(12): 912-918.
- Norman A., Bellacco R., Vaida F., et al. Total physical activity in relation to age, body mass, health and other factors in a cohort of Swedish men. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, 2002. 26(5): 670-675.[Crossref]
- Pennix B. W., Leveille S., Ferrucci L., et al. Exploring the effect of depression on physical disability: longitudinal evidence from the established populations for epidemiologic studies of the elderly. Am J Public Health, 1999. 89: 1346-1352.[Crossref]
- Ransford H. E., Palisi B. Aerobic exercise, subjective health and psychological well-being within age and gender subgroups. Soc Sci Med, 1996. 42(11): 1555-1559.[PubMed][Crossref]
- Sarna S., Sahi T., Koskenvuo M., et al. Increased life expectancy of world class male athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1993. 25: 237-244.
- Sherwood N. E., Jeffery R. W. The behavioural determinants of exercise: implications for activity interventions. Annu Rev Nutr, 2000. 20: 21-44.[Crossref]
- Snitker S., Mitchell B. D., Shuldiner A. R. Physical activity and prevention of type 2 diabetes. Lancet, 2003. 361(9351): 87-88.
- Schmitz K., French S. A., Jeffery R. W. Correlates of changes in leisure time physical activity over 2 years: the Healthy Worker Project. Prev Med, 1997. 26: 570-579.
- Tanasescu M., Leitzmann M. F., Rimm E. B., et al. Exercise type and intensity in relation to coronary heart disease in men. JAMA, 2002. 288(16): 1994-2000.
- Telama R., Laakso L., Yang X. Physical activity and participation in sports of young people in Finland. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 1994. 4: 65-74.
- Telama R., Xiaolin Y., Laakso L., et al. Physical activity in childhood and adolescence as predictors of physical activity in young adulthood. Am J Prev Med, 1997. 13: 317-323.
- Thompson P. D., Crouse S. F., Goodpaster B., et al. The acute versus the chronic response to exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2001. 33 (Suppl. 6): S 438-445.[Crossref]
- Tuomi K., Ilmarinen J., Eskelinen L., et al. Prevalence and incidence rates of diseases and work ability in different work categories of municipal occupations. Scand J Work Environ Health, 1991. (Suppl. 17): 67-74.
- US Department of Health and Human Services. Physical activity and health: report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, CDC, 1996.
- Varo J. J., Martínez-González M. A., Irala-Estévez J., et al. Distribution and determinants of sedentary lifestyle in the European Union. Int J Epidemiol, 2003. 32: 138-146.[Crossref]
- Weiss D. R., O'Loughlin J. L., Platt R. W., et al. Five-year predictors of physical activity decline among adults in low-income communities: a prospective study. Int J Behav Nutr Physical Activity, 2007. 4: 2-8.[Crossref]
- Woitas-Ślubowska D. Social status and self-assessment of health condition as factors determining access to physical recreation among former female athletes as compared to women without competitive sports experience. J of Human Kinetics, 2007. 18: 29-43.
- Zimmermann E., Ekholm O., Grønbæk M., et al. Predictors of changes in physical activity in a prospective cohort study of the Danish adult population. Scand J Public Health, 2008. 36: 235-241.[Crossref]