Pro-Oxidative Processes and Cytokine Response to Training in Professional Basketball Players
In the present study, we evaluated the plasma concentration of inflammatory mediators including cytokines and their relation with oxidative damage markers in training cycles of basketball players.Sixteen professional players of the Polish Basketball Extraleague participated in the study. The basketball players were observed during the preparatory period and the play-off round. Twenty healthy and untrained males composed of the reference group.The comparative study has shown significantly higher levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and protein carbonylation (PC) in nonathletes than in basketball players during the observed training periods. Tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), similarly to TBARS and PC, was significantly higher in nonathletes than athletes, except at the end of the play-off round. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was lower in nonathletes than athletes in the preparatory period but it was higher in athletes in play-off round. In basketball players, the high level of IL-6 directly correlated with TBARS (r = 0.763, p<0.001) and PC (r = 0.636, p<0.001) during the preparatory period, whereas the high level of TNF α inversely correlated with TBARS (r = −0.601, p<0.001) and PC (r = −0.650, p<0.001) in the play-off round. The activity of creatine kinase (CK) was significantly increased during the training mezocycles in basketball players compared with nonathletes, and reached the highest activity at the end of the play-off round. CK activity did not correlate with oxidative damage markers and cytokines in both untrained and trained subjects.Our results have shown the reduction in oxidative damage and improvement in cytokine response following professional training, as well as the relationship between inflammatory and pro-oxidative processes in basketball players.
- Alessio H. M., Hagerman A. E., Fulkerson B. K., Ambrose J., Rice R. E., Wiley R. L. Generation of reactive oxygen species after exhaustive aerobic and isometric exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2000. 32: 1576-1581.
- Buege J, Aust S. D. The thiobarbituric acid assay. In: Rice-Evans CA, Diplock AT, Symons MCR, editors. Techniques in Free Radical Research: Elsevier Amsterdam London New York Tokyo, 1991. p. 147-8.
- Bradford M, M. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein - dye binding. Anal Biochem, 1976. 72: 248-254.
- Bruunsgaard H., Galbo H., Halkjaer K. J., Johansen T. L., Maclean D. A., Pedersen B. K. Exercise-induced increase in serum interleukin-6 in humans is related to muscle damage. J Physiol, 1997. 499: 833-841.
- Drewa G., Woźniak A., Chęsy G., Rakowski A., Woźniak B., Woźniak J. Effect of exercise on the concentration of the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the blood plasma and erythrocytes of weightlifters. Biol Sport, 1999. 16: 105-112.
- Dröge W. Free radical in the physiological control of cell function. Physiol Rev, 2002. 82: 47-95.[PubMed]
- Gokhale R., Chnadrashekara S., Vasantakumar K. C. Cytokine response to strenuous exercise in athletes and non-athletes-an adaptive response. Cytokine, 2007. 40: 123-127.
- Huffman K. M., Slentz C. A., Bales C. W., Houmard J. A., Kraus W. E. Relationships between adipose tissue and cytokine responses to a randomized controlled exercise training intervention. Metabolism, 2008. 57: 577-583.
- Knez W. L., Jenkins D. G., Coombes J. S. Oxidative stress in half and full Ironman Triathletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2007. 39: 283-8.[WoS]
- Kosmidou I., Vassilakopoulous T., Xagorari A., Zakynthinos S., Papapetropoulos A., Roussos C. Production of interleukin-6 by skeletal myotubes. Role of reactive oxygen species. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol, 2002. 26: 587-593.
- Levine R. L., Garland D., Oliver C. N. Determination of carbonyl content in oxidatively modified proteins. Methods Enzymol, 1990. 186: 464-479.
- Malm C., Sjödin B., Sjöberg B., Lenkei R., Renström P., Lundberg I. E., Ekblom B. Leukocytes, cytokines, growth factors and hormones in human skeletal muscle and blood after uphill or downhill running. J Physiol, 2004. 556: 983-1000.
- McInnes S. E., Carlson J. S., Jones C. J., McKenna M. J. The physiological load imposed on basketball players during competition. J Sports Sci, 1995: 13: 387-397.
- Mena P., Maynar M., Gutierrez J. M., Maynar T., Timon J., Campillo J. E. Erythrocyte free radical scavenger enzymes in bicycle professional racers. Adaptation to training. Int J Sports Med, 1991. 12: 563-566.
- Metin G., Gümüstas K., UsluE, Belce A., Kayserilioglu A. Effect of regular training on plasma thiols, malondialdehyde and carnityne concentrations in young soccer players. Chin J Physiol, 2003. 46: 35-39.
- McBride J. M., Kraemer W. J., Triplet-McBride T., Sebastianelli W. Effect of resistance exercise on free radical production. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1998. 30: 67-72.
- Nieman D. C., Nehlsen-Cannarella S. L., Fagoaga O. R., Henson D. A., Utter A., Davis J. M., Williams F., Butterworth D. E. Influence of mode and carbohydrate on the cytokine response to heavy exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1998. 30: 671-678.
- Oztasan N., Tavsi S., Gumustekin K., Altinkaynak K., Aktas O., Timur H., Siktar E., Keles S., Akar S., Akcay F., Dane S., Gul M. Endurance training attenuates exercise-induced oxidative stress in erythrocytes in rat. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2004. 91: 622-627.
- Petersen A. M. W., Pedersen B. K. Anti-inflammatory effect of exercise. J Appl Physiol, 2005. 98: 1154-1162.
- Plomgaard P., Penkova M., Pedersen B. K. Fiber type specific expression of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-18 in human skeletal muscles. Exerc Immunol Rev, 2005. 11: 53-64.
- Radak Z., Chung H. Y., Goto S. Systemic adaptation to oxidative challenge induced by regular exercise. Free Radic Biol Med, 2008. 44: 153-159.[WoS]
- Rämson R., Jürimäe J., Jürimäe T., Mäestu J. The influence of increased training volume on cytokines and ghrelin concentration in college level male rowers. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2008 (Epub ahead of print).[WoS]
- Rong C., Bei H., Yun M., Yuzhu W., Mingwu Z. Lung function and cytokine levels in professional athletes. J Asthma, 2008. 45: 343-348.[Crossref][WoS][PubMed]
- Sagrista M. L., Garcia A. E., Africa De Madariaga M., Mora M. Antioxidant and pro-oxidant effect of the thiolic compounds N-acetyl-L-cysteine and glutathione against free radical-induced lipid peroxidation. Free Radic Res, 2002. 36: 329-340.
- Steinberg J. G., Ba A., Bregeon F., Delliaux S., Jammes Y. Cytokine and oxidative responses to maximal cycling exercise in sedentary subjects. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2007. 39: 964-968.[WoS]
- Steensberg A., Hall G., Osada T., Sacchetti M., Saltin B., Pedersen B. K. Production of interleukin-6 in contracting human skeletal muscles can account for the exercise-induced increase in plasma interleukin-6. J Physiol, 2000. 529: 237-242.
- Suzuki K., Kakaji S., Yamada M., Totsuka M., Sato K., Sugawara K. Systemic inflammatory response to exhaustive exercise. Cytokine kinetics. Exerc Immunol Rev, 2002. 8: 46-48.
- Valko M., Leibfritz D., Moncol J., Cronin M. T. D., Mazur M., Tesler J. Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. Inter J Biochem Cell Biol, 2007. 39: 44-84.[WoS]