Self-efficacy, self-esteem and body image as psychological determinants of 15-year-old adolescents’ physical activity levels
Purpose. The aim of the study was to analyze which psychological factors can determine the physical activity levels of 15-yearold adolescents. The psychological factors examined were self-efficacy, physical self-esteem (body weight and body appearance) and body image. A multifactorial perspective based on a socioecological approach as well as Bandura’s social learning theory was used to clarify the relationships between the determinants and physical activity levels. Methods. The study participants were 2277 15-year-old adolescents (1086 boys and 1191 girls). Selected questions and scales from HBS C’s international standard questionnaire were used, including the Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity index, the self perception of body weight and body appearance question, the General Self-Efficacy Scale and the Body Image Subscale. Results. It was found that over half of the Polish 15-year-old population featured an insufficient level of physical activity. Self-efficacy, body image and physical self-esteem of both body mass and body image were significant predictors of physical activity. The role of these predictors was found to be differentiated by gender. Conclusions. The physical activity levels of 15-year-old adolescents can be predicted by use of psychological variables.
- Wydział Wychowania Fizycznego Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego Józefa Piłsudskiego ul. Marymoncka 34 00-968 Warszawa, Poland, email@example.com
- Józef Piłsudski University of Physical Education, Warsaw, Poland
- The Institute of Mother and Child, Warsaw, Poland
- The Institute of Mother and Child, Warsaw, Poland
- 1. Biddle S.J.H., Mutrie N., Psychology of physical activity. Routledge, London-New York 2008.
- 2. Bandura A., Social learning theory [in Polish]. PWN, Warszawa 2007.
- 3. Łuszczyńska A., The change of health behaviors [in Polish]. GWP, Gdańsk 2004.
- 4. Kofta M., Doliński D., Cognitive approach to personality [in Polish]. In: Strelau J. (ed.), Psychology. Academic manual. GWP, Gdańsk 2000, 561-600.
- 5. Thompson K., Heinberg L., Antabe M., Tantleff-Dunn S., Exacting beauty. Theory, assessment, and treatment of body image disturbance. APA, Washington 1999.
- 6. Cash T., Pruzinski T. (eds.), Body image. A handbook of theory, research & clinical practice. Guilford Press, New York-London 2004.
- 7. Brytek-Matera A., Body image - self-image. The image of body in psychosocial approach [in Polish]. Difin, Warszawa 2008.
- 8. Harter S., Jackson B., Young adolescents’ perceptions of the link between low self-worth and depressed affect. J Early Adolesc, 1993, 33 (4), 383-407, doi: 10.1177/0272 431693013004003.[Crossref]
- 9. Wichstrom L., Harter’s self-perception profile for adolescents: reliability, validity, and evaluation of question format. J Pers Assess, 1995, 65 (1), 100-116, doi: 10.1207/ s15327752jpa6501_8.[Crossref]
- 10. Prochaska J., Sallis J., Long B., A physical activity screening measure for use with adolescents in primary care. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 2001, 155 (5), 554-559, doi: 10.1001/archpedi.155.5.554.[Crossref][PubMed]
- 11. Juczyński Z., The measurement instruments in health promotion and psychology [in Polish]. Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych PTP, Warszawa 2001.
- 12. Orbach I., Mikulincer M., Body Investment Scale. Construction and validation of a body experience scale. PsycholAssess, 1998, 10, 415-425.
- 13. Reynolds K.D., Killen J.D., Bryson S.W., Maron D.J., Taylor C., Maccoby N. et al., Psychosocial predictors of physical activity in adolescents. Prev Med, 1990, 19 (5), 541- 551, doi: 10.1016/0091-7435(90)90052-L.[PubMed][Crossref]
- 14. Trost S., Pate R., Saunders R., Ward D., Dowda M., Felton G., A prospective study of the determinants of physical activity in rural fifth-grade children. Prev Med, 1997, 26 (2), 257-263, doi: 10.1006/pmed.1996.0137.[Crossref]
- 15. Zakarian J., Hovell M., Hofstetter C., Sallis J., Keating K., Correlates of vigorous exercise in a predominantly low SES and minority high school population. Prev Med, 1994, 23 (3), 314-321, doi: 10.1006/pmed.1994.1044.[Crossref]
- 16. Rodgers W., Gauvin L., Heterogeneity of incentives for physical activity and self-efficacy in highly active and moderately active women exercisers. J Appl Soc Psychol, 1998, 28 (11), 1016-1029, doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.1998. tb01665.x.[Crossref]
- 17. Rodgers W., Sullivan M., Task, coping and scheduling self-efficacy in relation to frequency of physical activity. J Appl Soc Psychol, 2001, 31 (4), 741-753, doi: 10.1111/ j.1559-1816.2001.tb01411.x.[Crossref]
- 18. Chase M., Children’s self-efficacy, motivational intentions and attributions in physical education and sport. Res Q Exerc Sport, 2001, 72 (1), 47-54.[Crossref]
- 19. George T., Self-confidence and baseball performance: A causal examination of self-efficacy theory. J Sport ExercPsychol, 1994, 16, 381-399.
- 20. Pajares F., Urdan T., Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents. IAP, Greenwich 2006.
- 21. Cavill N., Biddle S., Sallis J., Health-enhancing physical activity for young people: Statement of the United Kingdom Expert Consensus Conference. PES, 2001, 13, 12-25.
- 22. Mulvihill C., Riverso K., Aggleton O., Physical activity at our time: Qualitative research among young people aged 5-15 years and parents. HEA, London 2000.
- 23. Heszen I., Sęk H., Health psychology [in Polish]. PWN, Warszawa 2008.