Professional Burnout in Female and Male Physical Education Teachers - A Four-Phase Typological Model
Purpose. The best-known concept of professional burnout is the Maslach tri-dimensional model. According to the author, a burnout process starts by increased emotional exhaustion, followed by reduced personal accomplishment and, ultimately, depersonalization. Progressing with time, the syndrome is manifested differently in various individuals. Recognizing the tri-dimensionality of the phenomenon, Golembiewski suggests a reverse direction of symptom occurrence and proposes an eight-phase model of the phenomenon intensification. The two different approaches to the dynamics of the burnout process have been called facing theories. The problem of facing theories has been solved by developing a concept based on data clustering, in consequence, arriving at a typological model where the four-phase model of professional burnout represents a special variant. The premises of the general model are as follows: tri-dimensionality of the syndrome, temporal continuity of the process, macro-path specific for a given profession (a cluster of individual paths), the effect of external factors. Basic procedures. The study was carried out between May 2006 and June 2007. The number of PE teachers was N = 1563: females N = 686 (43.9%); males N = 877 (56.1%). The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was employed. Statistical methods: data clustering (K-mean method), U Mann Whitney test. Main findings. With the use of the four-phase model, two macro paths illustrating the dynamics of burnout in female and male PE teachers were plotted. The different courses of burnout paths were determined by a significantly higher depersonalization level in men (p < 0.001). Conclusions. Initially (phase T1), females and males reacted to professional stress with emotional exhaustion (the Maslach's path) or reduced personal accomplishment - in both genders, in phase T1, the path bifurcated. At a high emotional exhaustion level, women began to depersonalize their pupils (phase T2) and get burned out (phase T3; N = 98, 14.3%). The second macro-path of female teachers terminated in phase T2. One macro-path of male teachers was identical with the macro-path characteristic of females (T0-T3), while the other illustrated burnout in young male teachers - with reduced personal accomplishment at school (T1), cynicism increased (T2) and the effect was burnout (T3, N = 99; 11.3%).
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