The effect of important parameters on the natural gas vehicles driving range
One of the most important issues regarding Natural Gas Vehicles (NGVs) is the Driving Range, which is defined as capability of a NGV to travel a certain distance after each refueling. The Driving Range is a serious obstacle in the development and growth of NGVs. Thus the necessity of studying the effects of various parameters on the Driving Range could be realized. It is found that the on-board storage capacity and the natural gas heating value have the greatest effect on the Driving Range. The charged mass of NGV cylinders is varied due to the natural gas composition and the final in-cylinder values (temperature and pressure). Underfilling of NGV cylinders, during charging operations, is a result of the elevated temperature which occurs in the NGV storage cylinder, due to compression and other processes could be overcome by applying extensive over-pressurization of the cylinder during the fuelling operation. Here, the effects of the most important parameters on the Driving Range have been investigated. The parameters are natural gas composition, engine efficiency and final NGV on-board in-cylinder temperature and pressure. It is found that, the composition has big effects on the Driving Range. The results also show that as final in-cylinder pressure decreases (or temperature increases), the Driving Range will be increased.
- Shahrood University of Technology, The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Shahrood, Iran, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Shahrood University of Technology, The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Shahrood, Iran
- Shahrood University of Technology, The Faculty of Chemistry, Shahrood, Iran
- 1. IANGV.(2010).Natural Gas Vehicle Statistics; SUMMARY DATA 2010 (EOY), from: http://www.iangv.org/tools-resources/statistics.html.
- 2. IANGV.(2010). Natural Gas Vehicle Statistics; NGV Count - Ranked Numerically As at December 2010.from: http://www.iangv.org/tools-resources/statistics.html.
- 3. Kowalewicz, A. & Wojtyniak, M. (2005). Alternative fuels and their application to combustion engines. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of AutomobileEngineering, 219 (1), 103-125.DOI: 10.1243/095440705X6399.[Crossref]
- 4. Yossefi, D., Belmont, M.R., Ashcroft, S.J. & Maskell, S.J. (2000). A comparison of the relative effects of fuel composition and ignition energy on the early stages of combustion in a natural gas spark ignition engine using simulation. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of AutomobileEngineering, 214(4),383-393. DOI: 10.1243/0954407001527709.[Crossref]
- 5. McTaggart-Cowan, G.P., Rogak, S.N., Hill, P.G., Munshi, S.R. & Bushe, W.K. (2008). The effects of fuel dilution in a natural-gas direct-injection engine. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 222(3), 441-453. DOI:10.1243/09544070JAUTO705.[Crossref]
- 6. McTaggart-Cowan, G.P, Rogak, S.N, Munshi, S.R, Hill, P.G., Bushe, W.K. (2010). The influence of fuel composition on a heavy-duty, natural-gas direct-injection engine, Fuel, 89 752-759. DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2009.10.007.[WoS][Crossref]
- 7. Maji, S., Ranjan, R. & Sharma, P. (2000). Comparison of Emissions and Fuel Consumption from CNG and Gasoline Fueled Vehicles - Effect of Ignition Timing, SAE 2000-01-1432. DOI:10.4271/2000-01-1432.[Crossref]
- 8. Lo Pez, J., Go Mez, A., Aparicio, F. & Sanchez, F.,(2009). Comparison of GHG emissions from diesel, biodiesel and natural gas refuse trucks of the city of Madrid. Applied Energy, 86, 610-615.DOI:10.1016/j.apenergy.2008.08.018.[Crossref][WoS]
- 9. Starling, K.E. & Savidge, J.L.(1992). AGA Transmission Measurement Committee Report Number 8, second ed., American Gas Association, Virginia, USA.
- 10. Mari´c, I. Galovi´c, A. & Šmuc, T. (2005). Calculation of natural gas isentropic exponent. Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 16 (1),13-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2004.11.003.[Crossref]
- 11. Mari´c, I.(2005). The Joule-Thomson effect in natural gas flow-rate measurements. Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 16,387-395.DOI: 10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2010.01.009.[Crossref]
- 12. ASTM D 3588-89. (1989). Calculating heat value, compressibility factor, relative density (specific gravity) of gaseous fuels, Am. Soc. Test. Mater., Philadelphia, PA.
- 13. ISO 6976. (1997). International Standard, Natural gas - Calculation of calorific values, density, relative density and Wobbe index from composition.
- 14. Yamane, K. & Furuhama, S. (1998). A Study on the effect of total weight of fuel and fuel tank on the driving performances of cars, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 23(9), 825-831. DOI: 10.1016/S0360-3199(97)00125-0.[Crossref]
- 15. Guzzella, L. & Sciarretta, A. (2007). Vehicle propulsion systems modeling and optimization (2nd. Ed.). Springer Verlag.
- 16. Guzzella, L. (2009) . Automobiles of the future and the role of automatic control in those systems, Annual Reviews in Control, 33, 1-10. DOI: 10.1016/j.arcontrol.2009.01.001.[Crossref][WoS]
- 17. Chapra, S.C., Raymond. P.(2005). Numerical method for engineers, McGraw-Hill.
- 18. Farzaneh-Gord, M., Hashemi, S. & Farzaneh-Kord, A. (2008). Thermodynamics Analysis of Cascade Reserviors Filling Process of Natural Gas Vehicle Cylinders, World Applied SciencesJournal, 5 (2), 143-149.
- 19. Farzaneh-Gord, M. (2008). Compressed natural gas Single reservoir filling process, Gas International Engineeringand Management, 48,6(July/August), 16-18.
- 20. Farzaneh-Gord,M., Deymi Dasht-bayaz, M. & Rahbari, H.R. (2011). Studying effects of storage types on performance of CNG filling stations, Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 3, 334-340.DOI: 10.1016/j.jngse.2011.02.001.[Crossref]
- 21. National Iran Gas Company website from: http://www.NIGC.ir.