Some reproductive and sexual health indicators in rape victims in Ukraine
The objective was to study the demographics and some reproductive health indicators in Ukrainian women who reported having been raped. On the basis of responses to a questionnaire, we evaluated factors associated with a history of rape by a case-referent approach, using women reporting rape (n=177) as the dependent variable in comparison to those without such an experience (n=1444). Women reporting rape were more often younger than those without a history of rape. There was an association between a history of rape and three or more induced abortions. Rape victims were more likely to have a history of sexually transmitted infections and pelvic inflammatory diseases. A history of rape was more often associated with smoking and previous drug use. Women who had experienced rape more often reported more than one sexual partner during the last six months as well as during the previous year. On the other hand, these women reported sexual intercourse less frequently than did those without a history of rape. Rape victims more often reported sexual harassment at where they work or socialize as well as sexual abuse in childhood or within their family. Thus, a history of rape was common and associated with several negative health indicators. Sexual violence needs to be acknowledged in all parts of the Ukrainian society as a serious threat that requires urgent attention for the improvement of women’s reproductive and general health and human rights.
-  E. Krug, L. Dahlberg, J. Mercy, A. Zwi and R. Lozano: World Report on Violence and Health, WHO, Geneva, 2002.
-  M. Hilden, B. Schei, K. Swahnberg, E. Halmesmaki, J. Langhoff-Roos, K. Offerdal, U. Pikarinen, K. Sidenius, T. Steingrimsdottir, H. Stoum-Hinsverk and B. Wijma: “A history of sexual abuse and health: a Nordic multicentre study”, BJOG, Vol. 111, (2004), pp. 1121–1127.
-  P. Tjaden and N. Thoennes: Prevalence, incidence, and consequences of violence against women: Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey, National Institute of Justice, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Washington, DC, and Atlanta, GA, 1998.
-  M.C. Ellsberg and L. Heise: Researching violence against women: A practical guide for researchers and activists, World Health Organization, PATH, Washington DC, 2005.
-  R. Coomaraswamy: Integration of the Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspectives. Violence against Women, Report No.: E/CN.4/2003/75/Add.1, 2003.
-  Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, U.S. Department of State: 2003 Country report on Human Rights Practices: Ukraine, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, U.S. Department of State, 2004.
-  L. Heise, M. Ellsberg and M. Gottmoeller: Ending violence against women. Population Report, Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, 1999.
-  J.M. Golding: “Sexual assault history and physical health in randomly selected Los Angeles women”, Health Psychol., Vol. 13, (1994), pp. 130–138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6220.127.116.11[Crossref]
-  P.M. McMahon, M.M. Goodwin and G. Stringer: “Sexual violence and reproductive health”, Matern. Child. Health J., Vol. 4, (2000), pp. 121–124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1009574305310[Crossref]
-  M.M. Holmes, H.S. Resnick, D.G. Kilpatrick and C.L. Best: “Rape-related pregnancy: estimates and descriptive characteristics from a national sample of women”, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., Vol. 175, (1996), pp. 320–324; discussion pp. 324-325. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9378(96)70141-2[Crossref]
-  C. Jenny, T.M. Hooton, A. Bowers, M.K. Copass, J.N. Krieger, S.L. Hillier, N. Kiviat, L. Corey, W.E. Stamm, and K.K. Holmes: “Sexually transmitted diseases in victims of rape”, N. Engl. J. Med., Vol. 322, (1991), pp. 713–716. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199003153221101[Crossref]
-  K.L. Dunkle, R.K. Jewkes, H.C. Brown, G.E. Gray, J.A. McIntryre and S.D. Harlow: “Gender-based violence, relationship power, and risk of HIV infection in women attending antenatal clinics in South Africa”, Lancet, Vol. 363, (2004), pp. 1415–1421. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16098-4[Crossref]
-  I. Mogilevkina and V. Odlind: “Contraceptive practices and intentions of Ukrainian women”, Eur. J. Contracept. Reprod. Health. Care, Vol. 8, (2003), pp. 185–196.
-  I. Mogilevkina, D. Hellberg, M.L. Nordstrom and V. Odlind: “Factors associated with pregnancy termination in Ukrainian women”, Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand., Vol. 79, (2000), pp. 1126–1131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0412.2000.0790121126.x[Crossref]
-  The Criminal Code of Ukraine, Kiev, 2001.
-  United Nations General Assembly: Declaration of the Elimination of Violence Against Women, (A/RES/487104), United Nations General Assembly, 1994.
-  M. Piispa: “Age and meanings of violence: women’s experiences of partner violence in Finland”, J. Interpers. Violence, Vol. 19, (2004), pp. 30–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260503259048[Crossref]
-  J. Coid, A. Petruckevitch, W.S. Chung, J. Richardson, S. Moorey, S. Cotter and G.S. Feder: “Sexual violence against adult women primary care attenders in east London”, Br. J. Gen. Pract., Vol. 53, (2003), pp. 858–862.
-  M. Ellsberg, L. Heise, R. Pena, S. Agurto and A. Winkvist: “Researching domestic violence against women: methodological and ethical considerations”, Stud. Fam. Plann., Vol. 32, (2001), pp. 1–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1728-4465.2001.00001.x[Crossref]
-  J.C. Campbell, L.C. Pugh, D. Campbell and M. Visscher: “The influence of abuse on pregnancy intention”, Womens Health Issues, Vol. 5, (1995), pp. 214–223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1049-3867(95)00058-5[Crossref]
-  L. Koenig and J. Moore: “Women, Violence, and HIV: A Critical Evaluation with Implications for HIV Services”, Matern. Child. Health J., Vol. 4, (2000), pp. 103–109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1009570204401[Crossref]
-  A. Spitz and G. Marks: “Violence and Reproductive Health”, Matern. Child. Health J., Vol. 4, (2000), pp. 77–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1009539102584[Crossref]
-  A.B. Silverman, H.Z. Reinherz and R.M. Giaconia: “The long-term sequelae of child and adolescent abuse: a longitudinal community study”, Child Abuse Negl., Vol. 20, (1996), pp. 709–723. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134(96)00059-2[Crossref]
-  S.L. Martin, K.A. Clark, S.R. Lynch, L.L. Kupper and D. Cilenti: “Violence in the lives of pregnant teenage women: associations with multiple substance use”, Am. J. Drug Alcohol Abuse, Vol. 25, (1999), pp. 425–440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/ADA-100101870[Crossref]
-  S. Zierler, B. Witbeck and K. Mayer: “Sexual violence against women living with or at risk for HIV infection”, Am. J. Prev. Med., Vol. 12, (1996), pp. 304–310.
-  K.L. Dunkle, R.K. Jewkes, H.C. Brown, M. Yoshihama, G.E. Gray, J.A. McIntyre and S.D. Harlow: “Prevalence and patterns of gender-based violence and revictimization among women attending antenatal clinics in Soweto, South Africa”, Am. J. Epidemiol., Vol. 160, (2004), pp. 230–239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwh194[Crossref]
-  J.A. Gazmararian, R. Petersen, A.M. Spitz, M.M. Goodwin, L.E. Saltzman and J.S. Marks: “Violence and reproductive health: current knowledge and future research directions”, Matern. Child. Health J., Vol. 4, (2000), pp. 79–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1009514119423[Crossref]
-  C. Garcia-Moreno: “Recommendations and conclusions from the International Conference on the Role of Health Professionals in Addressing Violence against Women. Naples, October 2000”, Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstet., Vol. 78, Suppl. 1, (2002), pp. 129–131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-7292(02)00059-0[Crossref]
-  B. Wijma, B. Schei, K. Swahnberg, M. Hilden, K. Offerdal, U. Pikarinen, K. Sidenius, T. Steingrimsdottir, H. Stoum and E. Halmesmaki-Nordic cross-sectional study: “Emotional, physical, and sexual abuse in patients visiting gynaecology clinics: a Nordic cross-sectional study”, Lancet, Vol. 361, (2003), pp. 2107–2113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13719-1[Crossref]
-  16 Days Against Violence Campaign Donetsk, Ukraine, 2000, http://www.winrock.org/general/publications/LHRD/16Days.pdf.
-  R. Uribe-Elias: “Sexual violence and the obstetrician/gynecologist”, Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstet., Vol. 82, (2003), pp. 425–433. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-7292(03)00230-3[Crossref]