The Relationship Between Beta Endorphins and Emotional State in Physically Active Individuals Aged 45-55 (A Report on a Pilot Study)
Introduction. This sports-science-related article heavily relies on studies that have reported an increase in beta-endorphin (â-EP) concentration in plasma in response to physical activity. It examines the psychological and physiological effects of physical activity and exercise and reports on a research-experiment-based, endorphin-hypotheses-related pilot study aimed at exploring mood-related â-EP effects occurring in physically active male and female individuals aged 45-55 in response to physical load. Material and methods. Six 45 to 55-year-old individuals (3 males and 3 females) rated as exhibiting moderate and high levels of physical activity in sport's laboratory. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to establish physical activity level. For facial expression analysis a short interview was applied, using software “FaceReader 3.0” (FR). As a load test a veloergometer exercise test was used, and Beta-endorphin (â-EP) levels were measured from venous blood. Results. The findings demonstrated an increase in â-EP levels in 50% of the subjects. No positive relation between â-EP increase and happiness has been observed. In four subjects an increase in disgust was observed due to the laboratory conditions. Five minutes after the load test FR data recorded the reduction or disappearance of negative emotions for all research subjects. Conclusions. Further investigation into the relationship of plasma levels of â-EP and the emotional state of the individual involved in physical activities is needed. This necessitates a further insight into how exercise-elevated endorphins (â-EP) affect mood state outside laboratory conditions. Therefore, a further investigation of people involved in physical recreation activities outdoors is envisaged.
- 1. Mousa S.A., Shakibaei M., Sitte N., Schafer M., Stein C. (2004). Subcellular pathways of beta-endorphin synthesis, processing, and release from immunocytes in inflammatory pain. Endocrinology' 145(3), 1331-41.
- 2. Bender T., Nagy G., Bama I., Tefner I., Kadas E., Geher P. (2007). The effect of physical therapy on beta-endorphin lev- els. European Journal of Applied Physiology' 100, 371-382. DOI: 10.1007/s00421-007-0469-9.[Crossref]
- 3. Biddle S.J.H., Mutrie N. (2007). Psycholog}' of physical activ- ity determinants, well-being and interventions (2“' edition). London: Routledge.
- 4. Peluso M„ Andrade L. (2005). Physical activity and mental health: the association between exercise and mood. Clinics 60(1),61-70.[Crossref]
- 5. Daniel M., Martin A. (1992). Opiate receptor blockade by naltrexone and mood state after acute physical activity. British Journal of Sports Medicine 26(2),111-115.[Crossref]
- 6. Kenneth R. (1999). The influence of physical activity on men- tal well-being. Public Health Nutrition 2 (3a), 411-418.
- 7. Landers D.N. (1997). The influence of exercise on mental health. PCPFSResearch Digest 2(12).
- 8. Boecker H., Othman A., MueckterS., ScheefL., Pensel M., Daamen M. et al. (2010). Advocating neuroimaging studies of transmitter release in human physical exercise challenges studies. Journal of Sports Medicine 1,167-175.
- 9. Leuenberger A. (2006). Endorphins, exercise, and addic- tions: A review of exercise dependence. The Premier Journal for Undergraduate Publications in the Neurosciences 3,1-9.
- 10. Pierce E., Eastman N., Tripathi H., Olson K., Dewey W. (1993). 6-Endorphin response to endurance exercise: rela- tionship to exercise dependence. Perceptualand Motor Skills 77(3), 767-770.
- 11. Kuilenburg H., Uyl M. (2005). The FaceReader: Online facial expression recognition. In 5"‘ International Conference on Methods and Techniques in Behavioral Research “Measuring Behavior 2005”, 30 August - 2 September 2005 (pp. 589-590). Wageningen: Noldus Information Technology. Retrieved from http://www.vicarvision.nl/pub/fc_denuyl_and_van_kuilenburg_2005.pdf.
- 12. Kamiya Biomedical Company. Human (3 Endorphin (BEP) ELISA kit. Instruction manual Cat. No. KT-53389.
- 13. Goldfarb A.H., Jamurtas A.Z., Kamimori G.H., Hegde S., Ot- terstetterR.,BrownD.A. (1998). Gender effect onbeta-endor- phin response to exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 30(12), 1672-1676.[Crossref]
- 14. Langenfeld M., Hart L., Kao P. (1987). Plasma endorphin responses to one hour bicycling and running at 60% VO2max. Medicine and Science in Sports 19,83-86.