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2013 | 20 | 4 | 269-273
Tytuł artykułu

Environmental diversity in somatic development and physical fitness of six-year-old children

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EN
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Introduction. In the auxologic literature numerous publications confirming the importance of environmental factors for the biological processes of growth and development of motor skills of children and adolescents can be found. The aim of the study was a comparative assessment of the level of somatic development and physical fitness of six-year-old children in urban and rural areas. Material and methods. The study was conducted in 2011-2013. A total of 1,057 children, including the 371 boys and girls from the Warsaw agglomeration and 147 boys and 168 girls from the rural environment in the Lublin region were subjects of the study. The average age was 5.87 (±0.30) years. In order to determine the status of somatic development the following features were measured: height and weight, 3 circumferences (shoulder, chest and waist), and 5 skinfolds (above the biceps and triceps, subscapular, on the stomach and on the calf). To assess the motor level the fitness test was used, consisting of the 5 following tests: seated forward bend, shuttle run 10x5 m, standing long jump, sitting-up for 30 s, and 1 kg medicine ball throw with both hands above the head forward. In the mathematical analysis of numerical data the selected techniques of descriptive statistics and Student's t-test and chisquare test were used. Results. Average values of height and weight, and body circumferences were higher in the rural areas (in these measurements of boys' body weight and broad parameters differed significantly). In environments differing in the degree of urbanization of place of residence a similar level of fatness was reported. In the most tests of physical fitness better results were achieved by rural children. This dominance was found especially in the 10x5 m shuttle run and the medicine ball throw. In these tests, there were significant differences in both sex groups. In addition, rural boys achieved significantly better results in the standing long jump and girls - in forward bend. Conclusions. The presence of signaled in the literature urbanization gradients in the rates of somatic development in favor of the urban population was not confirmed. In terms of selected anthropometric parameters (body circumferences) even a significant advantage of six-year-old children in rural areas against the peers in the city was noted. Dominance of the respondents from the rural environment has also been found in the image of their physical fitness. Higher levels of somatic-motor school readiness of six-year-old children from rural areas as compared with urban peers were shown.
Słowa kluczowe
Wydawca
Rocznik
Tom
20
Numer
4
Strony
269-273
Opis fizyczny
Daty
wydano
2013-12-01
online
2014-03-25
Twórcy
  • The Josef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Department of Physical Education Theory and Posture Correction Exercises , dorota.trzcinska@awf.edu.pl
  • Student of the third year of PhD studies at the Josef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw
autor
  • The Josef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Department of Physical Education Theory and Posture Correction Exercises
  • The Josef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Department of Physical Education Theory and Posture Correction Exercises
Bibliografia
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  • 4.Cieśla E. (2009). Determinants of motor fitness of children at the of 6-7 years originating from the area of the lubelskie province. In H. Popławska (Ed.), Somatic development, physical fitness and health status of rural children and adolescents (pp. 389-402). Biała Podlaska: AWF ZWWF Biała Podlaska.
  • 5.Cieśla E., Kopik A. (2003). Characteristics of physical, motor and social development of children on the verge of schools in rural areas. In J. Zagórski, M. Skład (Eds.), Determinants of the development of children and adolescents in rural areas (pp. 487-494). Lublin: IMW. [in Polish]
  • 6.Markowska M., Przychodni A. (2009). Environmental differentiation in the physical development of 6-years-old children from the area of the lubelskie province. In H. Popławska (Ed.), Somatic development, physical fitness and health status of rural children and adolescents (pp. 77-88). Biała Podlaska: AWF ZWWF Biała Podlaska.
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  • 23.Markowska M. (2007). Physical development and physical activity. In A. Kopik (Ed.), Six-year-old children in Poland. Report 2006. Diagnosis of studied development areas (pp. 85-101). Kielce: Wydawnictwo Tekst. [in Polish]
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  • 25.Nowicki G. (2003). Motor and psychosocial maturity of school children in rural and urban areas. In J. Zagórski, M. Skład (Eds.), Determinants of the development of children and adolescents in rural areas (pp. 472-479). Lublin: IMW. [in Polish]
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  • 30.Trzcińska D., Tabor P., Olszewska E. (2012). Physical development, physical fitness and body posture of 6-yearold children in Warsaw (including selected conditions). In K. Buoeko, J. Charzewska (Eds.), Determinants of the development of preschool children (pp. 47-67). Warszawa: AWF Warszawa. [in Polish]
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
Identyfikatory
Identyfikator YADDA
bwmeta1.element.-psjd-doi-10_2478_pjst-2013-0025
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