The influence of training loads on the sports results of athletes with visual impairments in the 800 and 1500 m races
Introduction. The increased level in competition and growing interest in sports for the disabled means that the training process of these people is the subject of studies and analysis. The main objective of this study was to identify the structure of the training loads in athletes with visual impairments in the 800 and 1500 m runs, in relation to sports performance. Material and methods. Seven annual trainings cycles of two groups (A, n=8, B, n=5) of athletes with visual impairments (medalists and participants of the Paralympic Games, World Championships, European Championships and multiple Polish masters), engaged in the 800 and 1500 m races, from the years 1998-2000 and 2003-2008 were evaluated. To analyze and evaluate the training loads, based on training logs two methods were used: Method I - based on an analysis of training documentation developed in the Department of Theory of Sport at the University of Physical Education in Warsaw. Method II - based on an assessment of the energy cost incurred for the implementation of training. Results. The analysis showed significant differences in the training process of the athletes of the two groups. The training of athletes from group A, was carried out mainly with the directed training method (61% of total load - TL) with low intensity - range 1 on a 5 point scale (74% TL), while group B - with special training method (76% TL) in second (2) range of intensity (71% TL). Conclusions. Training carried out by athletes from group B better reflects the specifications of middle distance runs, in comparison with group A, which could lead to a higher level of performance presented by the athletes of group B.
- The Josef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Chair of Theory and Methodology 1 of Teaching Movement, Department of Adapted Physical Activity, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Department of Sport for Persons with Disabilities
- Department of Theory and Methodology of Physical Education for Persons with Disabilities
- 1.Bolach E. (2001). Volume of physical load applied in the training unit during the subperiod of special preparation in wheelchair basketball. Fizjoterapia 11(2), 60-65. [in Polish]
- 2.Mazurek K., Rydzewska E., Dobraszkiewicz-Wasilewska B., Rudnicki S., Korzeniowska-Kubacka I., Rausiñska-Nocny L., et al. (2002). Effect of interval training on the physical capacity of patients with heart failure - 2 years observation. Postêpy Rehabilitacji 2, 53-64. [in Polish]
- 3.Przywarska I., Dylewicz P., Wilk M., Szcześniak Ł., Rychlewski T. (2002). Influence of three-week endurance training on some metabolic risk factors of coronary heart disease in rehabilitated patients after a heart attack. Postêpy Rehabilitacji 2, 17-26. [in Polish]
- 4.Szmigielska K., Jegier A. (2008). Effect of systematic physical exercise on cardiac sinus rythm of the heart in men with coronary artery disease participating in outpatient cardiac rehabilitation. Postêpy Rehabilitacji 1, 31-39. [in Polish]
- 5.Morrissey M.C., Goodwin P.C. (2007). Correlates of knee extensor training load used in rehabilitation after knee surgery. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 21(4), 1050-1052.
- 6.Osvath P., Kälbili K., Ramocsa G. (2007). Attitudes of students in sport education to the sport activity of blind people in Hungary and possible reasons for them. Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis. Gymnica (37)3, 21-26.
- 7.Nixon H.L. (2007). Constructing diverse sport opportunities for people with disabilities. Journal of Sport and Social Issues 4, 417-433.
- 8.Sozański H., Kosmol A. (1995). Documentation technology. In H. Sozañski, D. OEledziewski (Eds.), Training loads. Documentation technology (pp. 11-18). Warszawa: Biblioteka Trenera, COS RCMSzKFiS. [in Polish]
- 9.Wa¿ny Z. (1999). Reflections on assessment accuracy of volume of the training loads. Roczniki Naukowe AWF w Warszawie 38, 203-215. [in Polish]
- 10.IAAF Scooring Tables of Athletics - Outdoor. Retrieved from http://www.iaaf.org/aboutiaaf/documents/technical#scoring- tables.
- 11.Maciantowicz J. (1994). Training loads of female athlete in 800 m run in annual cycle (informative and energetic area). In P. Kowalski (Ed.), Selected research issues in athletics (pp. 99-120). Wroc³aw: Studia i Monografie AWF we Wroc³awiu 41. [in Polish]
- 12.Maughan R., Gleeson M., Greenhaff P.L. (1997). Biochemistry of exercise and training. UK: Oxford University Press.
- 13.Spencer M.R., Gastin P.B., Payne W.R. (1997). Cover energy needs during 400-1500 m runs. Sport Wyczynowy 11-12, 8-15. [in Polish]
- 14.Sobczyk G. (2000). Energetic training in middle distance runs. Trening 1, 65-82. [in Polish]
- 15. Żołạdź J.A. (2002). Human physical capacity. In J. Górski (Ed.), Physiological basis of physical effort (pp. 456-552). Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL. [in Polish]
- 16.Lilge W. (2003). Training of top marathon runners. Österreichisches Journal für Sportmedizin 1, 30-40. [in German]
- 17.Poliszczuk D.A., Sozañski H. (2003). Planning of the four years period training of top level contenders. Podlaska Kultura Fizyczna 1, 3-7. [in Polish]
- 18.Sozañski H., Poliszczuk D. (2003). Selected aspects of longterm planning in athletics training. In K. Prusik (Ed.), Athletics in theory and practice (pp. 21-31). Bydgoszcz: Sport. [in Polish]
- 19.Sozański H., Siwko F. (1990). Structure of training loads in endurance sports. Sport Wyczynowy 3-4, 13-27. [in Polish]
- 20.Sobczyk G. (2001). Characteristics of training loads and starting effectiveness during half-years indoor cycles of European bronze medalist in 800 m run. In P. Kowalski, J. Migasiewicz (Eds.), Research issues in athletics (pp. 135-149). Wroc³aw: AWF Wroc³aw. [in Polish]
- 21.Listos E. (1990). Training loads of female athletes in 800 m run. Trening 4, 61-79. [in Polish]
- 22.Prusik K. (2001). Optimalization trias of training loads in middle distance runs. In P. Kowalski, J. Migasiewicz (Eds.), Research issues in athletics (pp. 119-126). Wroc³aw: AWF Wroc³aw. [in Polish]
- 23.Prusik K., Mroczyński Z. (2000). Individualization of training in middle distance runs. Rocznik Naukowy AWF Gdañsk 9, 257-287. [in Polish]
- 24.Esteve-Lano J., San Juan A.F., Earnest C.P., Foster C., Lucia A. (2005). How do endurance runners actually train? Relationship with competition performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 37(3), 496-504.