An infrared-based device for non-invasive monitoring of eyelid movement during sleep
The increased movement of eyes and eyelids is characteristic of the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stage, making it an important indicator in sleep monitoring. A device was designed to detect this activity in a non-invasive way by means of measuring infrared light intensity reflected off the eyelid. The system converts the light intensity into current through a photodetector, performs analog signal processing and analog to digital conversion (ADC). The data is transmitted wirelessly to a computer, where the results can be displayed, stored and analyzed with a dedicated software, which also provides control over the device. The hardware is embedded in a mask, which is put over the patient's eyes. User safety in terms of mechanical, electrical and optical dangers has been ensured. The device was tested on a napping subject.
-  Achim Westermann. JChart2D, precise visualization of data [Internet]. [placeunknown: publisher unknown]; [updated 2010 Jun 19; cited 2013 Jun 23].Available from: http://jchart2d.sourceforge.net/.
-  Below K, Dietrich K.: Medizinische Gerätetechnik. 1st ed. Haan-Gruiten: VerlagEuropa-Lehrmittel; 2006. p. 126. German.
-  Directive 2006/25/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April2006 on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposureof workers to risks arising from physical agents. OJ L114/38. 2003.
-  Horowitz P, Hill W. The Art of Electronics. 2nd ed. New York: CambridgeUniversity Press; 1989. Chapter 15, Measurements and Signal Processing;p. 987-1041.
-  Erlacher D, Schredl M. Do REM (lucid) dreamed and executed actions share thesame neural substrate? International Journal of Dream Research.2008;1(1):7-14.
-  JExcelApi [Internet]. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; [updated 2010 Jun19; cited 2013 Jun 23]. Available from: http://jexcelapi.sourceforge.net/.
-  Kobashi S, et al. Eye position estimation during sleep using infrared video infunctional MRI. Journal of Advanced Computational Intelligence and IntelligentInformatics. 2008;12(1):32-40.
-  Laberge S, Rich R, Wright D, Kottke D, inventors. The Lucidity Institute, Inc.,assignee. Equipment and methods used to induce lucid dreams in sleepingpersons. United States Patent US 5,507,716. 1996 Apr 16.
-  Non-binding guide to good practice for implementing Directive 2006/25/ECArtificial Optical Radiation. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the EuropeanUnion; 2011. p. 137.
-  Robinson DA. A method of Measuring Eye Movement Using a Scleral SearchCoil in a Magnetic Field. IEEE Trans on Biomedical Engineering.1963;10:137-145.
-  Rxtx [Internet]. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; [updated 2011 Jul 7; cited2013 Jun 23]. Available from: http://rxtx.qbang.org/.
-  Van de Castle R. Our Dreaming Mind. 2nd ed. New York: Ballantine Books;1995. p. 576.
-  Van Gompel RPG, Fischer MH, Murray WS, Hill RL, editors. Eye movements:A window on mind and brain. 1st ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier Ltd.; 2007. p. 714.
-  Webster JG, editor. Medical Instrumentation; Application and Design.4th ed. New York: John Wiley&Sons, Inc.; 2000. Chapter 14, Electrical Safety;p. 67538-676.