Foams Stabilized with Nanoparticles for Gas Well Deliquification
This study examined the interaction of solid nanoparticles and anionic and non-ionic surfactant at an air–water interface. Aqueous foams stabilized by silica nanoparticles in water with different levels of salinity were studied in detail. The stability of solid/surfactant dispersion was evaluated visually. Nanoparticles content impact and concentration of surfactant on the foamability, deliquification of foams and structure of wet foams were studied. It was found that the foamability of dispersion depends either on the surfactant concentration or on the nanoparticles concentration. The adsorption of hydrophobically modified silica particles and surfactants reduces the air/water interface tension. The results of the examinations showed that the use of nanoparticles allows to increase the efficiency of brine unloading even up to 20%. Surfactant particle and nanosilica present synergistic action, use of 4 wt% of nanoparticles allows to reduce surfactant consumption up to half. The cost of the preparation of the proposed dispersion is slightly higher, about 5%, compared to the sole surfactant.
- AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow, Faculty of Drilling, Oil and Gas, 30 Mickiewicza Ave., 30-059 Krakow , email@example.com
- AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow, Faculty of Drilling, Oil and Gas, 30 Mickiewicza Ave., 30-059 Krakow
- AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, 30 Mickiewicza Ave., 30-059 Krakow
- 1. Armenta, M. (2003). Mechanism and control of water infiow to wells in gas reservoirs with bottom-water drive. Doctoral dissertation, Louisiana State University, USA.
- 2. Oyewole, P. & Lea, J. (2008). Artificial lift selection strategy for the life of gas well with some liquid production. Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 21–24 September 2008. Denver, Colorado, USA: Society of Petroleum Engineers.
- 3. Huang, F. & Nguyen, D. (2012). Optimized foamers for natural gas well deliquification: A statistical design approach. Fuel 97 (7), 523–530. DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2012.02.062.[Crossref][WoS]
- 4. Solesa, M. & Sevic, S. (2006). Production Optimization Challenges of gas wells with liquid loading problem using foaming agents. SPE Russian Oil and Gas Technical Conference and Exhibition, 3–6 October 2006. Moscow, Russia: Society of Petroleum Engineers.
- 5. Yang, J., Jovancicevic, V. & Ramachandran, S. (2007). Foam for gas well deliquification. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 309, 177–181. DOI: 10.1016/j. colsurfa.2006.10.011.[Crossref][WoS]
- 6. Karakashev, S. & Grozdanova, M. (2012). Foams and antifoams. Adv. Coll. Interf. Sci. 176 –177, 1–17. DOI: 10.1016/j. cis.2012.04.001.[Crossref]
- 7. Paria, S. & Khilar, K. (2004). A review on experimental studies of surfactant adsorption at the hydrophilic solid–water interface. Adv. Coll. Interf. Sci. 110, 75–95. DOI: 10.1016/j. cis.2004.03.001.[Crossref]
- 8. Tiberg, F., Brinck, J. & Grant, L. (2000). Adsorption and surface-induced self-assembly of surfactants at the solid-aqueous interface. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science 4, 411–419. DOI: 10.1016/S1359-0294(00)00016-9.[Crossref]
- 9. Horozov, T. (2008). Foams and foam films stabilised by solid particles. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science 13, 134–140. DOI: 10.1016/j.cocis.2007.11.009.[WoS][Crossref]
- 10. Dong, X., Xu, J., Cao, C., Sun, D. & Jiang, X. (2010). Aqueous foam stabilized by hydrophobically modified silica particles and liquid paraffin droplets. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 353, 181–188. DOI: 10.1016/j. colsurfa.2009.11.010.[WoS][Crossref]
- 11. Hunter, T., Wanless, E., Jameson, G. &. Pugh, R. (2009). Non-ionic surfactant interactions with hydrophobic nanoparticles: Impact on foam stability. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 347, 81–89. DOI: 10.1016/j. colsurfa.2008.12.027.[Crossref][WoS]
- 12. Liu, Q., Zhang, S., Sun, D. & Xu, J. (2010). Foams stabilized by Laponite nanoparticles and alkylammonium bromides with different alkyl chain lengths. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 355, 151–157. DOI: 10.1016/j. colsurfa.2009.12.003.[Crossref][WoS]
- 13. Binks, P. & Horozov, S. (2006). Colloidal particles at liquid interfaces. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
- 14. Schramm, L.L. (2000). Surfactants, Fundamentals and Application in the Petroleum Industry. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
- 15. Zubrzycki, A. (2011). Fundamentals of petroleum geology. Krakow, Poland: Wydawnictwa AGH. (in Polish)