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2013 | 15 | 2 | 116-121
Tytuł artykułu

Water softening using caustic soda: privileges and restrictions

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
The aims of the current study is to investigate the constraint of using caustic soda in water treatment and evaluating its performance in water softening, compared to the other chemical group, including lime and sodium carbonate. Based on mass balance of reactants in the caustic softening process, a mathematical relation for expressing the constraint of using caustic soda in water softening was derived. To evaluate caustic soda performance in water softening and prove the derived relation as well, some experimental works on some water sources including well water and clarifi er’s inlet water in two oil refi neries were performed. The results showed that compared to limesodium carbonate, the caustic soda is the best choice for water softening; however, using caustic soda in water softening, while restrictive mathematical relation does not verify the chemical characteristics of water, could lead to an extreme increase in alkalinity.
Słowa kluczowe
Wydawca

Rocznik
Tom
15
Numer
2
Strony
116-121
Opis fizyczny
Daty
wydano
2013-07-01
online
2013-07-10
Twórcy
Bibliografia
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  • 2. Baker, R.W., Cussler, E.L., Eykamp, W., Koros, W.J., Riley, R.L. & Strathmann, H. (1991). Electrodialysis in Membrane Separation Systems, Noyes Data Corp., Park Ridge, NJ, 396-420.
  • 3. Demand, M. (2006). Power plant evaluation demonstrates the opportunities to use recycled (grey) water. Demand Model Services Ltd.
  • 4. Gabelich, C.J., Rahardianto, A., Northrup, C.R., Yun, T.I. & Cohen, Y. (2011). Process evaluation of intermediate chemical demineralization for water recovery enhancement in production-scale brackish water desalting, Desalination 272, 36-45. Doi:10.1016/j.desal.2010.12.050.[Crossref][WoS]
  • 5. Abdessemed, D. & Nezzal, G. (2008). Coupling softening - ultrafiltration like pretreatment of sea water case study of the Corso plant desalination (Algiers), Desalination 221, 107-113. Doi:10.1016/j. desal.2007.01.072.[Crossref]
  • 6. Rahardianto, A., Gao, J., Gabelich, C.J., Williams, M.D. & Cohen, Y. (2007). High recovery membrane desalting of low-salinity brackish water:Integration of accelerated precipitation softening with membrane RO, J. Membrane Sci. 289, 123-137. Doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2006.11.043.[WoS][Crossref]
  • 7. Gabelich, C.J., Williams, M.D., Rahardianto, A., Franklin, J.C. & Cohen, Y. (2007). High-recovery reverse osmosis desalination using intermediate chemical demineralization, J. Membrane Sci. 301, 131-141. Doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2007.06.007.[Crossref][WoS]
  • 8. El-Manharawya, S. & Hafezb, A., (2002). Study of seawater alkalization as a promising RO pretreatment Method. Desalination, 153, 109-120.
  • 9. Al-Rehaili, A.M. & Alabdula’aly, A.I. (1999). Chemical and economical evaluation of groundwater treatment plants in Riyadh. Water Res. 33 (15), 3291-3302.
  • 10. Benefield, L.D. & Morgan, J.M. (1990). Chemical Precipitation, Quality and Treatment: A Handbook of Community Water Supplies, 5rd Ed., American Water Works Association.
  • 11. Edward, E. & Baruth (2005). Water Treatment Plant Design, 4rd Ed. McGraw Hill.
  • 12. Brands, H.J. & Tripke, E. (1982). Water Manual, Deutsche Babcock Anlagen, 75.
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
Identyfikatory
Identyfikator YADDA
bwmeta1.element.-psjd-doi-10_2478_pjct-2013-0033
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