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2013 | 60 | 1 | 5-13
Tytuł artykułu

A Situational Theory of Advantages in Sport

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic explanation of the concept of advantage in the context of sport competitions. Advantage is a common concept in sports, but it also holds ambiguities that need clarification. Let’s say, for example, that the national soccer team of Brazil is playing the national team of Finland and is ahead 5 to 0. Finland receives a penalty kick due to a refereeing error. At this point, which of the teams has the advantage? In this paper, I answer this question through a systematic explanation of the concept of advantage. My theory is based on Sigmund Loland’s view that advantage can be distributed both formally and informally in sport competitions. I will develop Loland’s notion of formal advantage by introducing what I call an absolute sense of advantage - a relation of superiority that is based on the performances of two competitors. I replace informal advantage with what I refer to as an expectancy sense of advantage, which is related to expectations regarding the absolute advantage. These two senses of advantage have different functions, and I conclude that advantage is a phenomenon that plays a vital role in all sport competitions through these two senses - absolute and expectancy.
Wydawca
Rocznik
Tom
60
Numer
1
Strony
5-13
Opis fizyczny
Daty
wydano
2013-12-01
online
2013-12-10
Twórcy
Bibliografia
  • Brüggemann, G.P., Arampatzis, A., Emrich, F. & Potthast, W. (2008). Biomechanics of double transtibial amputee sprinting using dedicated sprinting prostheses. Sports Technology, 1(4-5), 220-227. DOI: 10.1002/jst.63[Crossref]
  • Carr, C.L. (2008). Fairness and performance enhancement in sport. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 35(2), 193-207. DOI: 10.1080/00948705.2008.9714738.[Crossref]
  • Court of Arbitration for Sport. (2008). Pistorius v/ IAAF, award of 16 May 2008 (Arbitration CAS 2008/A/1480).\Retrieved from Court of Arbitration for Sport website: http://jurisprudence.tascasorg/sites/CaseLaw/Shared%20Documents/1480.pdf
  • Edwards, S.D. (2009). Should Oscar Pistorius be excluded from the 2008 Olympic Games? In E. Jespersen & M. McNamee (Eds.), Ethics, dis/ability and sports (pp. 26-39). London, England: Routledge.
  • Foddy, B., Savulescu, J. (2011). Time to re-evaluate gender segregation in athletics. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45(15), 1184-1188. DOI: 10.1136/1184 bjsm.2010.071639[Crossref][WoS]
  • Gardner, R. (1995). On performance-enhancing substances and the unfair advantage argument. In W. J. Morgan & K. V. Meier (Eds.), Philosophic inquiry in sport (2nd ed., pp. 222-31). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
  • Hämäläinen, M. (2012). The concept of advantage in sport. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, 6(3), 308-322. DOI: 10.1080/17511321.2011.649360[Crossref]
  • IAAF. (2009). Biomechanical analysis, 12th IAAF World Championships in Athletics Berlin, 15-23.08.2009. Retrieved from IAAF website: http://berlin.iaaf.org/mm/document/development/research/05/30/83/20090817081546%5fhttppostedfile%5fwch09%5fm100%5ffinal%5f13529.pdf
  • IAAF (2012, September 9). Top lists: 100 metres all time. Retrieved from IAAF website: http://www.iaaf.org/statistics/toplists/inout=o/age=n/season=0/sex=M/all=y/legal=A/disc=100/detail.html
  • Jones, C., Wilson, C. (2009). Defining advantage and athletic performance: The case of Oscar Pistorius. European Journal of Sport Science, 9(2), 125-131. DOI: 10.1080/17461390802635483[Crossref][WoS]
  • Loland, S. (1999). Justice and game advantage in sporting games. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, 2(2), 165-183. DOI: 10.1023/A:1009960012546[Crossref]
  • Loland, S. (2002). Fair play in sport. A moral norm system. London, England: Routledge.
  • Tucker, R., Dugas, J. (2009, August 17). Analysis of Bolt’s 9.58 world record [Web log post]. Retrieved June 3, 2013, from The Science of Sport website: http://www.sportsscientists.com/2009/08/analysis-of-bolts-958-wr.html
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
Identyfikatory
Identyfikator YADDA
bwmeta1.element.-psjd-doi-10_2478_pcssr-2013-0028
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