Examining the Levels of Self-Leadership Perceptions of University Student- Athletes in Terms of Sociodemographic Characteristics
The purpose of the present study is to determine the difference of self-leadership perceptions for university student-athletes in terms of sociodemographic characteristics. The research involved 167 university student-athletes aged 18-21 years (Muğla and Kocaeli at Turkey). Self-leadership perceptions were measured by the Revised Self-Leadership Questionnaire. The number of strategies of selfleadership was calculated in the distribution of mean scores. It was found that variables such as age, education status of mother, and monthly income of the university students do not cause any difference in the levels of self-leadership perceptions. On the other hand, other factors were determined to create statistically significant differences in the use of self-leadership strategies: gender; dealing with sport outside of school; taking part in teams; branch of interested sport; education status of father; socioeconomic status; personal sport history of athletes. It has revealed that not only the psychical factors but also behavioral, cognitive, and psychological factors of self-leadership have important roles in increasing the performance of student-athletes in sport activities.
- Allen, S. (2006). Expertise in sport: A cognitive-developmental approach. The Journal of Education, 187, 9-29.
- Arbuckle, J.L. (2007). Amos 16.0 User’s Guide. Chicago: SPSS Inc.
- Beauchamp, M.R., Bray, S.R., Albinson, J.G. (2002). Pre-competition imagery, self-efficacy and performance in collegiate golfers. Journal of Sport Sciences, 20, 697-705.
- Carmeli, A., Meitar, R., Weisberg, J. (2006). Self-leadership skills and work innovative behavior at work. InternationalJournal of Manpower, 27, 75-90.
- Cleary, T.J., Zimmerman, B.J. (2001). Self regulation differences during athletic practice by experts, non-experts, and novices. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 13, 185-206.[Crossref]
- Cory, D. (2011). Lead like Tebow, Now! Retrieved May 12, 2012 from http://www. accessathletes.com /blog/keyword.cfm?keyword= SelfLeadership DeFrancesco, C., Burke, K.L. (1997). Performance enhancement strategies used in a professional tennis tournament. International. Journal of Sport Psychology, 28, 185-195.
- Gilbert, J.N., Gilbert, W.D., Loney, B., Wahl, M.T., Michel, E. (2006). Sport psychology in an urban high school: Overview of a two-year collaboration. The Journal of Education, 187, 67-95.
- Gorillas & Gazelles LLC. (2006). Athlete self-leadership programs. Enhancing team success beyond athletic talent. Retrieved 4 May 2012 from http://www.gorillas-gazelles.com Hardy, J., Hall, C., Hardy, L. (2004). A note on athletes’ use of self-talk. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 16, 251-257.
- Helsen, W., Starkes, J., Hodges, N. (1998). Team sports and the theory of deliberate practice. Journal of Sport &Exercise Psychology, 20, 12-34.
- Houghton, J.D., Neck, P.C. (2002). The revised self-leadership questionnaire: Testing a hierarchical factor structure for self-leadership. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 17, 672-692.[Crossref]
- Howland, J.M. (2006). Mental skills training for coaches to help athletes focus their attention, manage arousal, and improve performance in sport. The Journal of Education, 187, 49-66.
- Jonker, L., Elferink-Gemser, M.T., Visscher, C. (2010). Differences in self-regulatory skills among talented athletes: The significance of competitive level and type of sport. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28, 901-908.[Crossref][WoS]
- Kang, Y.S., Choi, Y.J., Park, D.L., Kim, I.J. (2010). A study on nurses' self-leadership, self-esteem, and organizational effectiveness. Journal of Korean Academy Nursing Administration, 16, 143-151.[Crossref]
- Kazan, A.L. (1999). Exploring the concept of self-leadership: Factors impacting self-leadership of Ohio AmericorpsMembers (Doctoral Dissertation). Ohio: The Ohio State University.
- Kitsantas,A., Zimmerman, B.J. (2002). Comparing self-regulatory processes among novice, non-expert, and expert volleyball players: A microanalytic study. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14, 91-105.[Crossref]
- Loughead, T.M., Hardy, J., Eys, M.A. (2006). The nature of athlete leadership. Journal of Sport Behavior, 29, 142-158.
- Mamassis, G., Doganis, G. (2004). The effects of a mental training program on juniors pre-competitive anxiety, self confidence, and tennis performance. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 16, 118-137.[Crossref]
- Manz, C.C. (1986). Self-leadership: Toward an expanded theory of self-influence processes in organizations. Academyof Management Review, 11, 585-600.
- Manz ,C.C. (1992). Mastering self-leadership: Empowering yourself for personal excellence. New Jersey: Prentice- Hall, Englewood Cliffs.
- Masciana, R.C., Van Raalte, J.L., Brewer, B.W., Branton, M.G., Coughlin, M.A. (2001). Effects of cognitive strategies on dart throwing performance. International Sports Journal, 5, 31-39.
- Neck C.P., Houghton, J.D. (2006). Two decades of self-leadership theory and research: Past developments, present trends, and future possibilities. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21, 270-295.[Crossref]
- Nota, L., Soresi, S., Zimmerman, B.J. (2004). Self-regulation and academic achievement and resilience: A longitudinal study. International Journal of Educational Research, 41, 198-215.[Crossref]
- Peluso, E.A., Ross, M.J., Gfeller, J.D., LaVoie, D.J. (2005). A comparison of mental strategies during athletic skills performance. Journal of Sport Science and Medicine, 4, 543-549.
- Pyun, D.Y., Kwon, H.H., Koh, K.T., Wang, C.K.J. (2010). Perceived coaching leadership of youth athletes in Singapore. Journal of Sport Behavior, 33, 25-41.
- Sirin, S.R. (2005). Socioeconomic status and academic achievement: A meta-analytic review of research. Review ofEducational Research, 75, 417-453.
- Tabak, A., Sığrı, Ü., Türköz, T. (2009). The reliability and validity of self-leadership questionnaire Turkish form. Paper presented at 17th National Management and Organization Congress (pp. 303-309). 21-23 May, Eskisehir, Turkey.
- Tabak, A., Türköz, T., Basım, N. (2011). The role of employee’s self-leadership perceptions on impression management tactics: An applied research in Defense Industry. METU Studies in Development, 38, 21-50.
- Tiggemann, M., Williamson, S. (2000). The effect of exercise on body satisfaction and self-esteem as a function of gender and age. Sex Roles, 43, 119-127.[Crossref]
- Zimmerman, B.J. (2002). Becoming a self-regulated learner: An overview. Theory Into Practice, 41, 64-70.