Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2014 | 2 | 1 |
Tytuł artykułu

Fabrication and Characterization of Three Dimensional Electrospun Cortical Bone Scaffolds

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
Bone is a composite tissue composed of an organic matrix, inorganic mineral matrix and water. Structurally, bone is organized into two distinct types: trabecular (or cancellous) and cortical (or compact) bone. Cortical bone is highly organized, dense and composed of tightly packed units or osteons whereas trabecular bone is highly porous and usually found within the confines of cortical bone. Osteons, the subunits of cortical bone, consist of concentric layers of mineralized collagen fibers. While many scaffold fabrication techniques have sought to replicate the structure and organization of trabecular bone, very little research focuses on mimicking the organization of native cortical bone. In this study we fabricated three-dimensional electrospun cortical scaffolds by heat sintering individual osteon-like scaffolds. The scaffolds contained a system of channels running parallel to the length of the scaffolds, as found naturally in the haversian systems of bone tissue. The purpose of the studies discussed in this paper was to develop a mechanically enhanced biomimetic electrospun cortical scaffold. To that end we investigated the appropriate mineralization and cross-linking methods for these structures and to evaluate the mechanical properties of scaffolds with varying fiber angles. Cross-linking the gelatin in the scaffolds prior to the mineralization of the scaffolds proved to help prevent channels of the osteons from collapsing during fabrication. Premineralization, before larger scaffold formation and mineralization, increased mineral deposition between the electrospun layers of the scaffolds. A combination of cross-linking and premineralization significantly increased the compressive moduli of the individual scaffolds. Furthermore, scaffolds with fibers orientation ranging between 15° and 45° yielded the highest compressive moduli and yield strength.

Opis fizyczny
  • Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University,
    School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Blacksburg, VA,
    USA 24061
  • Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University,
    School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Blacksburg, VA,
    USA 24061
  • University of Virginia, Department of Biomedical
    Engineering, Charlottesville, VA
  • Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University,
    School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Blacksburg, VA,
    USA 24061
  • Virginia Tech, Material Science and Engineering,
    Blacksburg, VA
  • Virginia Tech, Department of Chemical Engineering,
    Blacksburg, VA
  • Rutgers University,
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Piscataway, NJ
  • Dominion University School of Medical Diagnostic & Translational
    Sciences, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA
  • [1] Chen, J.; Chu, B.; Hsiao, B. S., Mineralization of hydroxyapatitein electrospun nanofibrous poly(L-lactic acid) scaffolds. JBiomed Mater Res A 2006, 79 (2), 307-17.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • [2] An, Y. H.; Woolf, S. K.; Friedman, R. J., Pre-clinical in vivoevaluation of orthopaedic bioabsorbable devices. Biomaterials2000, 21 (24), 2635-52.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • [3] Ritchie, R. O., How does human bone resist fracture? Ann N YAcad Sci 2010, 1192 (1), 72-80[Crossref]
  • [4] Rho, J. Y.; Kuhn-Spearing, L.; Zioupos, P., Mechanical propertiesand the hierarchical structure of bone. Med Eng Phys 1998, 20(2), 92-102[PubMed][Crossref]
  • [5] Beniash, Elia. “Biominerals-hierarchical nanocomposites:the example of bone.” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews:Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology, 2011, 3 (1), 47-69[PubMed]
  • [6] Cowin, S. C.; Doty, S. B., Tissue mechanics. Springer: New York,NY, 2007; p xvi, 682 p.
  • [7] Borden, M.; El-Amin, S. F.; Attawia, M.; Laurencin, C. T.,Structural and human cellular assessment of a novelmicrosphere-based tissue engineered scaffold for bone repair.Biomaterials 2003, 24 (4), 597-609[PubMed][Crossref]
  • [8] Borden, M.; Attawia, M.; Khan, Y.; Laurencin, C. T., Tissueengineered microsphere-based matrices for bone repair:design and evaluation. Biomaterials 2002, 23 (2), 551-9.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • [9] Wei, G.; Ma, P. X., Structure and properties of nano-hydroxyapatite/polymer composite scaffolds for bone tissueengineering. Biomaterials 2004, 25 (19), 4749-57[Crossref][PubMed]
  • [10] Wang, X.; Song, G.; Lou, T., Fabrication and characterization ofnano composite scaffold of poly(L-lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite. JMater Sci Mater Med, 2009, 21(1), 183-8[PubMed]
  • [11] Ma, P. X.; Zhang, R., Microtubular architecture ofbiodegradable polymer scaffolds. J Biomed Mater Res 2001, 56(4), 469-77.[Crossref][PubMed]
  • [12] Lu, L.; Peter, S. J.; Lyman, M. D.; Lai, H. L.; Leite, S. M.;Tamada, J. A.; Uyama, S.; Vacanti, J. P.; Langer, R.; Mikos, A.G., In vitro and in vivo degradation of porous poly(DL-lactic-coglycolicacid) foams. Biomaterials 2000, 21 (18), 1837-45[Crossref]
  • [13] Chen, V. J.; Ma, P. X., Nano-fibrous poly(L-lactic acid) scaffoldswith interconnected spherical macropores. Biomaterials 2004,25 (11), 2065-73.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • [14] Yang, S.; Leong, K. F.; Du, Z.; Chua, C. K., The design ofscaffolds for use in tissue engineering. Part I. Traditionalfactors. Tissue Eng 2001, 7 (6), 679-89[Crossref][PubMed]
  • [15] Stevens, B.; Yang, Y.; Mohandas, A.; Stucker, B.; Nguyen, K.T., A review of materials, fabrication methods, and strategiesused to enhance bone regeneration in engineered bonetissues. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2008, 85 (2),573-82[PubMed][Crossref][WoS]
  • [16] Rezwan, K.; Chen, Q. Z.; Blaker, J. J.; Boccaccini, A. R.,Biodegradable and bioactive porous polymer/inorganiccomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Biomaterials2006, 27 (18), 3413-31[PubMed][Crossref]
  • [17] Liu, X.; Ma, P. X., Polymeric scaffolds for bone tissueengineering. Ann Biomed Eng 2004, 32 (3), 477-86.[Crossref][PubMed]
  • [18] Andric, T.; Sampson, A. C.; Freeman, J. W., Fabrication andcharacterization of electrospun osteon mimicking scaffoldsfor bone tissue engineering. Materials Science & EngineeringC-Materials for Biological Applications 2011, 31 (1), 2-8[Crossref]
  • [19] Wright, L. D.; Young, R. T.; Andric, T.; Freeman, J. W., Fabricationand mechanical characterization of 3D electrospun scaffoldsfor tissue engineering. Biomed Matre, 2010, 5(5), 055006[Crossref]
  • [20] Andric, T.; Wright, L. D.; Freeman, J. W., Rapid Mineralization ofElectrospun Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering. J BiomaterSci Polym Ed, 2011, 22(11), 1535-1550[Crossref]
  • [21] Tas, A. C.; Bhaduri, S. B., Rapid coating of Ti6A14V at roomtemperature with a calcium phosphate solution similar to 10xsimulated body fluid. Journal of Materials Research 2004, 19(9), 2742-2749[Crossref]
  • [22] Heydarkhan-Hagvall, S.; Schenke-Layland, K.; Dhanasopon,A. P.; Rofail, F.; Smith, H.; Wu, B. M.; Shemin, R.; Beygui, R. E.;MacLellan, W. R., Three-dimensional electrospun ECM-basedhybrid scaffolds for cardiovascular tissue engineering.Biomaterials 2008, 29 (19), 2907-14[Crossref]
  • [23] Sisson, K.; Zhang, C.; Farach-Carson, M. C.; Chase, D. B.;Rabolt, J. F., Fiber diameters control osteoblastic cell migrationand differentiation in electrospun gelatin. J Biomed Mater ResA, 2010, 94 (4), 1312-24[WoS][PubMed]
  • [24] Sisson, K.; Zhang, C.; Farach-Carson, M. C.; Chase, D.B.; Rabolt, J. F., Evaluation of cross-linking methods forelectrospun gelatin on cell growth and viability. Biomacromolecules2009, 10 (7), 1675-80[WoS][PubMed][Crossref]
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.