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Focused Ion Beam nano-patterning from traditional applications to single ion implantation perspectives

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In this article we review some fundamentals of the Focused Ion Beam (FIB) technique based on scanning finely focused beams of gallium ions over a sample to perform direct writing. We analyse the main limitations of this technique in terms of damage generation or local contamination and through selected examples we discuss the potential of this technique in the light of the most sensitive analysis techniques. In particular we analyse the limits of Ga-FIB irradiation for the patterning of III-V heterostructures, thin magnetic layers, artificial defects fabricated onto graphite or graphene and atomically thin suspended membranes. We show that many of these earlypointed “limitations” with appropriate attention and analysis can be valuable for FIB instrument development, avoided, or even turned into decisive advantages. Such new methods transferable to the fabrication of devices or surface functionalities are urgently required in the emerging nanosciences applications and markets.
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