Physical Fitness in Female Soccer Players by Player Position: A Focus on Anaerobic Power
Purpose. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between player position and physical fitness, with an emphasis on anaerobic power, in female soccer players. Methods. For this purpose, 54 first league female soccer players were recruited. They included goalkeepers (n = 4, age 22.89 ± 4.37 years), defenders (n = 21, 21.92 ± 3.81 years), midfielders (n = 22, 21.71 ± 4.70 years) and attackers (n = 7, 20.43 ± 4.70 years). Participants’ anthropometric characteristics were measured and a physical fitness test battery was administered. Results. significant differences were observed in body fat percentage (F3,50 = 3.06, p = 0.036, n2 = 0.16) with goalkeepers being fatter than defenders (mean difference 6.1%; 95% CI 0.3,11.9). Positional differences were also found in the sit-and-reach test (F3,50 = 4.46, p = 0.007, n2 = 0.21), in which goalkeepers scored lower than defenders (-11.4 cm; 95% CI -21.4, -1.5) and midfielders (-10.0 cm; 95% CI -19.9, 0). Comparison of fat mass and endomorphy were statistically significant (p = 0.057 and p = 0.062, respectively), with goalkeepers showing the highest values; these differences were in the same direction as with body fat percentage. No positional differences were found in the other physical fitness components (aerobic capacity, anaerobic power, and muscle strength). Conclusions. Differences among player positions were observed in body composition (highest body fat percentage in goalkeepers) and flexibility (lowest score in goalkeepers). These trends are in agreement with previously published data concerning elite soccer players. These findings might be used as reference data by coaches and trainers to identify talent, select players, and monitor training.
- 1. Ingebrigtsen J., Dillern T., shalfawi s.A., Aerobic capacities and anthropometric characteristics of elite female soccer players. J Strength Cond Res, 2011, 25 (12), 3352– 3357, doi: 10.1519/JsC.0b013e318215f763.[Crossref][WoS]
- 2. Andersson H.A., randers M.b., Heiner-Moller A., Krus-trup P., Mohr M., Elite female soccer players perform more high-intensity running when playing in international games compared with domestic league games. J Strength Cond Res, 2 010, 2 4 (4), 912 – 919, doi: 10.1519/ J sC.0b 013 e 3181d09f21.[Crossref][WoS]
- 3. Milanovic Z., sporis G., Trajkovic N., Differences in body composite and physical match performance in female soccer players according to team position. J Hum Spor t Exerc, 2012, 7 (1), s67–s72, doi: 10.4100/jhse.2012.7. Proc1.08.[Crossref]
- 4. sporis G., Canaki M., barisic V., Morphological differences of elite Croatian female soccer players according to team position. Hrvat Sportskomed Vjesn, 2007, 22, 91–96.
- 5. Vescovi J.D., Motion Characteristics of Youth Women soccer Matches: Female Athletes in Motion (FAiM) study. Int J Sports Med, 2014, 35 (2), 110–117. doi: 10.1055/s-0033 -1345134.[Crossref][PubMed][WoS]
- 6. bradley P.s., bendiksen M., Dellal A., Mohr M., Wilkie A., Datson N. et al., The application of the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 test to elite female soccer populations. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 2014, 24 (1), 43–54. doi: 10.1111/ j.1600-0838.2012.01483.x.[Crossref][WoS]
- 7. Parizkova J., body fat and physical fitness. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague 1977.
- 8. Wang Z.M., Pierson r.N. Jr., Heymsfield s.b., The five-level model: a new approach to organizing body-composition research. Am J Clin Nutr, 1992, 56 (1),19–28.
- 9. ross W.D., Marfell-Jones M.J., Kinanthropometry. In: MacDougall J.D., Wenger H.A., Green H.J. (eds.), Physiological testing of the high-performance athlete. Human Kinetics, Champaign 1991.
- 10. Ayala F., sainz de baranda P., De ste Croix M., san-tonja F., Absolute reliability of five clinical tests for assessing hamstring flexibility in professional futsal players. J Sci Med Sport, 2012, 15 (2), 142–147, doi: 10.1016/j. jsams.2011.10.002.[Crossref][WoS]
- 11. bland J., Pfeiffer K., Eisenmann J.C., The PWC170: comparison of different stage lengths in 11–16 year olds. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2012, 112 (5), 1955–1961, doi: 10.1007/ s00421-011-2157-z.[WoS][Crossref]
- 12. Heyward V.H., Advanced fitness assessment and exercise prescription. Human Kinetics, Champaign 2010.
- 13. Driss T., Vandewalle H., The measurement of maximal (anaerobic) power output on a cycle ergometer: a critical review. BioMed Res Int, 2 013, doi: 10.1155/ 2 01 3/589 3 61.[WoS][PubMed][Crossref]
- 14. Cohen J., statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. 2nd edn. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale 1988.
- 15. Zupan M.F., Arata A.W., Dawson L.H., Wile A.L., Payn T.L., Hannon M.E., Wingate Anaerobic Test peak power and anaerobic capacity classifications for men and women intercollegiate athletes. J Strength Cond Res, 2009, 23 (9), 2598–2604, doi: 10.1519/JsC.0b013e3181b1b21b.[Crossref]
- 16. Chelly M.s., Cherif N., Amar M.b., Hermassi s., Fath-loun M., bouhlel E. et al., relationship of peak leg power, 1 maximal repetition half back squat, and leg muscle volume to 5-m sprint performance of junior soccer players. J Strength Cond Res, 2010, 24 (1), 266–271, doi: 10.1519/ JsC.0b013e3181c3b298.[Crossref]
- 1 7. Morin J.b., Hintzy F., belli A., Grappe F., Force-velocity relationships and sprint running performances in trained athletes. Sci Sports, 2002, 17 (2), 78–85, doi: 10.1016/ s0765-1597(02)00124-7.[Crossref]
- 18. bouhlel E., bouhlel H., Chelly M.s., Tabka Z., relationship between maximal anaerobic power measured by force-velocity test and performance in the counter movement jump and in the 5-jump test in moderately trained boys. Sci Sports, 2006, 21 (1), 1–7, doi: 10.1016/j.scispo. 2005.08.004.[Crossref]
- 19. Nikolaidis P.T., Age-related differences in force-velocity characteristics in youth soccer. Kinesiol, 2012, 44 (2), 130–138.
- 20. Perez-Gomez J., rodriguez G.V., Ara I., Olmedillas H., Cha-varren J., González-Henriquez J.J. et al., role of muscle mass on sprint performance: Gender differences? Eur J Appl Physiol, 2008, 102 (6), 685–694, doi: 10.1007/500421 -007-0648-8.[Crossref]
- 21. Nikolaidis P.T., Age-related differences of hamstring flexibility in male soccer players. Baltic J Health Phys Activ, 2012, 4 (2), 110–115, doi: 10.2478/v10131-012-0012-1.[Crossref]
- 22. sporis G., Vucetic V., Jovanovic M., Jukic I., Omrcen D., reliability and factorial validity of flexibility tests for team sports. J Strength Cond Res, 2011, 25 (4), 1168–1176, doi: 10.1519/JsC.0b013e3181cc2334.[Crossref][WoS]