Preschool attendance as a factor in the motor skill development of children
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the motor skills of children who had already attended one year of preschool or had just begun their education. Methods. A total of 286 five- and six-year-old children were recruited from different preschools (eight preschools and three primary school preschool programs) in Gdańsk, Poland. A test battery was designed based on the children’s preschool physical education curriculum and the motor skills that should be acquired at this age. The analyzed motor tasks included: 1) walking on a balance bench, 2) crawling on an inclined balance bench, 3) running then jumping over an obstacle with one leg, 4) catching and throwing a ball over an obstacle, 5) throwing a ball against the wall and catching it, 6) climbing on a gymnastic ladder, 7) jumproping. The children were tested twice in test-retest conditions, at the beginning and end of the school year. Results. The children showed the lowest level of skills in throwing, catching, and bouncing a ball against the wall and jumproping. Conclusions. No significant differences were identified as to children’s physical abilities or between the 5-year-olds and 6-year-olds either beginning or continuing preschool.
- 1. Hurlock E.B., Child development [in Polish]. PWN, Warszawa 1985.
- 2. Przewęda R., Somatic development and motoric [in Polish]. WSiP, Warszawa 1981.
- 3. Woynarowska B., Physical activity In prevention of children’s and teenager’s health and development disorders [in Polish], Medicina Sportiva, 1997, 1 (2), 75-81.
- 4. Kelder S.H., Perry C.L., Klepp K.I., Lytle L.L., Longitudinal tracking of adolescent smoking, physical activity and food choice behaviours. Am J Public Health 1994, 84 (7), 1121-1126, doi: 10.2105/AJPH.84.7.1121.[PubMed][Crossref]
- 5. Twisk J.W.R., Kemper H.C.G., van Mechelen W., Post G.B., Tracking of risk factors for coronary heart disease over a 14-year period: a comparison between lifestyle and biologic risk factors with data from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Study. Am J Epidemiol, 1997, 145 (10), 888-898.
- 6. Boreham C., Riddoch C., The physical activity, fitness and health of children. J Sports Sci, 2001, 19 (12), 915-929, doi: 10.1080/026404101317108426.[Crossref]
- 7. Moore L.L., Lombardi D.A., Whire M.J., Campell I.L., Oloveria S.A., Ellison R.C., Influence of parents physical activity on activity levels of young children. J Pediatrics, 1991, 118 (2), 215-219.[Crossref]
- 8. Simons-Morton B.G., Health-related physical fitness in childhood: status and recommendations. Am Rev Publ Health, 1988, 9, 403-425, doi: 10.1146/annurev.pu.09. 050188.002155.[Crossref]
- 9. Telama R., Yang X., Laakso L., Viikari J., Physical activity in childhood and adolescence as predictor of physical activity in young adulthood. Am J Prev Med, 1997, 13 (4), 317-323.[PubMed]
- 10. Strong W.B., Malina R.M., Blimkie C.J., Daniels S.R., Dishman R.K., Gutin B. et al., Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth. J Pediatrics, 2005, 146 (6), 732-737, doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2005.01.055.[Crossref]
- 11. Health Canada and the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology. Canada’s physical activity guide for youth. Cat.No. H39-611/2002-IE. Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, Ottawa 2002.
- 12. Corbin C.B., Pangrazi R.P., Physical activity for children: a statement of guidelines for children aged 5-12, 2nd ed. National Association for Sport and Physical Education, Reston 2004.
- 13. Baranowski T., Hooks P., Tsong Y., Cieslik C., Nader P.R., Aerobic physical activity among third- to sixth-grade children. J Dev Behav Pediatr, 1987, 8 (4), 203-206.[PubMed]
- 14. Trost S.G., Pate R.R., Sallis J.F., Freedson P.S., Taylor W.C., Dowda M., Sirard J., Age and gender differences in objectively measured physical activity in youth. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2002, 34 (2), 350-355, doi: 10.1097/00005768-200202000-00025.[Crossref]
- 15. Rowlands A.V., Pilgrim E.L., Eston R.G., Patterns of habitual activity across weekdays and weekend days in 9-11-year-old children. Prev Med, 2008,/46 (4), 317-324, doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2007.11.004.[WoS][Crossref]
- 16. Bailey R.C., Olson J., Pepper S.L., Porszasz J., Barstow T.J., Cooper D.M., The level and tempo of children’s physical activities: an observational study. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1995, 27, 1033-1041.[Crossref]
- 17. Berman N., Bailey R., Barstow T.J., Cooper D.M., Spectral and bout detection analysis of physical activity patterns in healthy, prepubertal boys and girls. Am J Human Biol, 1998, 10 (3), 289-297, doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1520-6300(1998)10:3<289::AID-AJHB4>3.0.CO;2-E.[Crossref]
- 18. Department of Health, At least five a week: Evidence on the impact of physical activity and its relationship to health. A report from the Chief Medical Officer., Department of Health, London 2004, 3.
- 19. Malina R.M., Anthropology and physical activity: a lifespan perspective [in Polish]. Medicina Sportiva, 2002, 6 (1), 9-16.
- 20. Sekita B., From studies on physical fitness of children aged Wroclaw 3.5-5 years [in Polish]. Rozprawy Naukowe AWF we Wrocławiu, 1977, 13, 17-28.
- 21. Sekita B., Somatic development and physical fitness of children aged 3-7 years. Development efficiency and capacity of children and adolescents [in Polish]. AWF, Warszawa 1988, 12-34.
- 22. Ugodowska G., The level of physical fitness and movement children’s nursery in Wroclaw [in Polish]. Kultura Fizyczna, 1992, 9-10, 19.
- 23. Cieśla E., Klimaszewska J., Kopik A., Markowska M., Szumilas M., Walasek B., Six-year-olds in Poland. Report 2006 [in Polish]. TEKST, Kielce 2007.
- 24. Brańska E., What programs in pre-school education? [in Polish]. Wychowanie w przedszkolu, 2009, 8, 8.