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2013 | 14 | 3 | 194-199
Tytuł artykułu

Effects of Internal and External Attentional Foci on Motor Skill Learning: Testing the Automation Hypothesis

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
Purpose. This study investigated if (1) the beneficial effects of an external focus of attention on learning a motor skill were influenced by an internal focus of attention provided at initial instruction (2) or by an internal focus of attention at the early stage of the acquisition phase and (3) their relation to the automation hypothesis. Methods. Three separate experiments were performed with 168 college students on the acquisition, transfer, and retention of a golf-putting task. Results. In conjunction, the results of the three experiments pointed to the positive effects of an internal attention of focus instructions followed by an external attentional focus on motor learning. Conclusions. These results support the development of an alternative hypothesis on the effects of attentional focus on motor skill acquisition.
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Wydawca

Czasopismo
Rocznik
Tom
14
Numer
3
Strony
194-199
Opis fizyczny
Daty
wydano
2013-09-01
online
2013-10-15
Twórcy
  • University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, taco@usp.br
  • University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
autor
  • University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Bibliografia
  • 1. Schmidt R.A., Lee T.D., Motor Control and Learning. Human Kinetics, Champaign 1999.
  • 2. James W., The principles of psychology (2). Holt, New York 1890.
  • 3. Welford A.T., The ‘psychological refractory period’ and the timing of high-speed performance - a review and a theory. Br J Psychol, 1952, 43 (1), 2-19, doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8295.1952.tb00322.x.[Crossref]
  • 4. Broadbent D.E., Perception and communication. Pergamon, London 1958.
  • 5. Bell J.B., Hardy J., Effects of attentional focus on skilled performance in golf. J Appl Sport Psychol, 2009, 21 (2), 163-177, doi: 10.1080/10413200902795323.[Crossref]
  • 6. Schneider W., Shiffrin R.M., Controlled and automatic human information processing: I. Detection, search, and attention. Psychol Rev, 1977, 84 (1), 1-66, doi: 10.1037/ 0033-295X.84.1.1.[Crossref]
  • 7. Wulf G., Attentional focus and motor learning: A review of 10 years of research. E-Journal Bewegung und Training, 2007, 1, 4-14.
  • 8. Wulf G., Hoß M., Prinz W., Instructions for motor learning: Differential effects of internal versus external focus of attention. J Mot Behav, 1998, 30 (2), 169-179, doi: 10.1080/00222899809601334.[Crossref]
  • 9. Wulf G., Lauterbach B., Toole T., The learning advantages of an external focus of attention in golf. Res Q ExercSport, 1999, 70 (2), 120-126.
  • 10. McNevin N.H., Wulf G., Attentional focus on supra-postural tasks affects postural control. Hum Mov Sci, 2002, 21 (2), 187-202, doi: 10.1016/S0167-9457(02)00095-7.[Crossref][PubMed]
  • 11. Perkins-Ceccato N.P., Passmore S.R., Lee T.D., Effects of focus attention depend on golfers’ skill. J Sport Sci, 2003, 21 (8), 593-600, doi: 10.1080/0264041031000101980.[Crossref]
  • 12. Emanuel M., Jarus T., Bart O., Effect of focus of attention and age on motor acquisition, retention, and transfer: A Randomized Trial. Phys Ther, 2008, 88 (2), 251-260, doi:10.2522/ptj.20060174.[Crossref][WoS][PubMed]
  • 13. Lawrence G.R., Gottwald V.M., Hardy J., Khan M.A., Internal and external focus of attention in a novice form sport. Res Q Exercise Sport, 2011, 82 (3), 431-441.[Crossref][WoS]
  • 14. Schorer J., Jaitner T., Wollny R., Fath F., Baker J., Influence of varying focus of attention conditions on dart throwing performance in experts and novices. Exp Brain Res, 2012, 217 (2), 287-297, doi: 10.1007/s00221-011-2992-5.[WoS][Crossref][PubMed]
  • 15. Fitts P.M., Posner M.I., Human performance. Brooks Coole, Belmont 1967.
  • 16. Poolton J.M., Maxwell J.P., Masters R.S.W., Raab M., Benefits of an external focus of attention: Common coding or conscious processing? J Sport Sci, 2006, 24 (1), 88-99, doi: 10.1080/02640410500130854.[Crossref]
  • 17. Gentile A.M., A Working model of skills acquisition with application to teaching. Quest, 1972, 17 (1), 3-23, doi: 10.1080/00336297.1972.10519717.[Crossref]
  • 18. Kahneman D., Attention and effort. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 1973.
  • 19. Piekarzievcz L.E., Effects of increased extrinsic feedback in learning a motor skill locked [in Portuguese]. Dissertation. Department of Physical Education, Division of
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
Identyfikatory
Identyfikator YADDA
bwmeta1.element.-psjd-doi-10_2478_humo-2013-0022
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