PL EN


Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2014 | 44 | 1 | 129-136
Tytuł artykułu

Changes in Energy Cost and Total External Work of Muscles in Elite Race Walkers Walking at Different Speeds

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
The aim of the study was to assess energy cost and total external work (total energy) depending on the speed of race walking. Another objective was to determine the contribution of external work to total energy cost of walking at technical, threshold and racing speed in elite competitive race walkers. The study involved 12 competitive race walkers aged [...] years with 6 to 20 years of experience, who achieved a national or international sports level. Their aerobic endurance was determined by means of a direct method involving an incremental exercise test on the treadmill. The participants performed three tests walking each time with one of the three speeds according to the same protocol: an 8-minute walk with at steady speed was followed by a recovery phase until the oxygen debt was repaid. To measure exercise energy cost, an indirect method based on the volume of oxygen uptake was employed. The gait of the participants was recorded using the 3D Vicon opto-electronic motion capture system. Values of changes in potential energy and total kinetic energy in a gate cycle were determined based on vertical displacements of the centre of mass. Changes in mechanical energy amounted to the value of total external work of muscles needed to accelerate and lift the centre of mass during a normalised gait cycle. The values of average energy cost and of total external work standardised to body mass and distance covered calculated for technical speed, threshold and racing speeds turned out to be statistically significant [...] . The total energy cost ranged from 51.2 kJ.m-1 during walking at technical speed to 78.3 kJ.m-1 during walking at a racing speed. Regardless of the type of speed, the total external work of muscles accounted for around 25% of total energy cost in race walking. Total external work mainly increased because of changes in the resultant kinetic energy of the centre of mass movement.
Wydawca

Rocznik
Tom
44
Numer
1
Strony
129-136
Opis fizyczny
Daty
wydano
2014-12-01
zaakceptowano
2014-12-01
online
2014-12-30
Twórcy
  • Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Biomechanics of University School of Physical Education in Cracow, Poland
  • Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Physiology and Biochemistry of University School of Physical Education in Cracow, Poland
  • Institute of Sport Sciences, Department of Athletics of University School of Physical Education in Cracow, Poland
Bibliografia
  • Bastien GJ, Heglund NC, Schepens B. The double contact phase in walking children. J. Exp. Biol, 2003; 206: 2967-2978
  • Bergh U. Physiology of cross-country ski racing. Champaign. Human Kin. Publ, 1982
  • Cavagna GA, Willems PA, Legramandi MA, Heglund NC. Pendular energy transduction within the step in human walking. J. Exp. Biol, 2002; 205(21): 3413-3422
  • Chwała W. Effect of speed on changes positions of the body’s center of gravity and efficiency energy recovery mechanism in physiological gait and racewalking. Wyd. Monograf. Akademii Wychowania Fizycznego w Krakowie 12, 206-254; 2013
  • Duff-Raffaele M, Kerrigan DC, Corcoran PJ, Saini M. The proportional work of lifting the center of mass during walking. Am. J. Phys. Med. Rehabil, 1996; 75: 375-9
  • Eames MHA, Cosgrove A, Baker R. Comparing methods of estimating the total body centre of mass in threedimensions in normal and pathological gaits. Hum. Mov. Sci, 1999; 18(5): 637-646[Crossref]
  • Ishikawa M, Komi P, Grey M, Lepola V, Bruggemann G. Muscle-tendon interaction and elastic energy usage in human walking. J. Appl. Physiol, 2005; 99(2): 603-608[Crossref]
  • Klimek AT, Chwała W. The evaluation of energy cost of effort and changes of centre of mass (COM) during race walking at starting speed after improving the length of lower extremities. Acta Bioeng. Biomech, 2007; 9(2): 55-60[PubMed]
  • Minetti AE, Ardigo LP, Saibene F. The transition between walking and running in humans: metabolic and mechanical aspects at different gradients. Acta Physiol. Scand, 1994; 150: 315-323
  • Neptune RR, Sasaki K, Kautz SA. The effect of walking speed on muscle function and mechanical energetics. Gait Post, 2008; 28: 135-143
  • Ortega JD, Farley CT. Minimizing center of mass vertical movement increases metabolic cost in walking. J. Appl. Physiol. 2005; 99: 2099-2107
  • Reinhard U, Müller PH, Schmulling RM. Determination of anaerobic threshold by the ventilation equivalent in normal individuals. Respiration, 1979; 38: 36
  • Schepens B, Bastien GJ, Heglund NC, Willems PA. Mechanical work and muscular efficiency in walking children. J. Exp. Biol, 2004; 207: 587-596
  • Schwartz MH, Koop SE, Bourke JL, Baker R. A nondimensional normalization scheme for oxygen utilization data. Gait Post, 2006; 24(1): 14-22
  • Umberger BR, Martin PE. Mechanical power and efficiency of level walking with different stride rates. J. Exp. Biol., 2007; 210: 3255-3265[WoS]
  • Van de Walle P, Desloovere K, Truijen S, Gosselink R, Aerts P, Hallemans A. Agerelated changes in mechanical and metabolic energy during typical gait. Gait Post, 2010; 31(4): 495-501
  • Waters RL, Hislop HJ, Perry J, Thomas L, Campbell J. Comparative cost of walking in young and old adults. J. Orthop. Res, 1983; 1(1): 73-76[Crossref]
  • Waters RL, Lunsford BR, Perry J, Byrd R. Energy - speed relationship of walking: standard tables. J. Orthop. Res, 1988; 6(2): 215-222 [Crossref]
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
Identyfikatory
Identyfikator YADDA
bwmeta1.element.-psjd-doi-10_2478_hukin-2014-0118
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.