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2014 | 42 | 1 | 27-40
Tytuł artykułu

The Backstroke Swimming Start: State of the Art

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
As sprint swimming events can be decided by margins as small as .01 s, thus, an effective start is essential. This study reviews and discusses the ‘state of the art’ literature regarding backstroke start biomechanics from 23 documents. These included two swimming specific publications, eight peer-reviewed journal articles, three from the Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming Congress series, eight from the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports Conference Proceedings, one from a Biomechanics Congress and one academic (PhD) thesis. The studies had diverse aims, including swimmers’ proficiency levels and data collection settings. There was no single consensus for defining phase descriptions; and kinematics, kinetics and EMG approaches were implemented in laboratory settings. However, researchers face great challenges in improving methods of quantifying valid, reliable and accurate data between laboratory and competition conditions. For example, starting time was defined from the starting signal to distances as disparate as ~5 m to 22.86 m in several studies. Due to recent rule changes, some of the research outcomes now refer to obsolete backstroke start techniques, and only a few studies considered the actual international rules. This literature review indicated that further research is required, in both laboratory and competition settings focusing on the combined influences of the current rules and block configuration on backstroke starting performances
Wydawca

Rocznik
Tom
42
Numer
1
Strony
27-40
Opis fizyczny
Daty
wydano
2014-10-01
online
2014-10-10
Twórcy
  • Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
  • Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
  • Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal / Porto Biomechanics Laboratory, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
  • Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal / Porto Biomechanics Laboratory, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal., jpvb@fade.up.pt
autor
  • Centre for Aquatics Research and Education, Institute for Sport, Physical Education, and Health Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK / Exercise and Sport Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
Bibliografia
  • Arellano R, Cossor J, Wilson B, Chatard J-C, Riewald S, Mason B. Modelling competitive swimming in different strokes and distances upon regression analysis: a study of the female participants of Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. XIX International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports: University of San Francisco, 2001; 53-56
  • Arellano R, Sanchez-Molina J, Navarro F, De Aymerich J. Analysis of 100 m backstroke, breaststroke, butterfly, freestyle swimmers at the 2001 European Youth Olympic days. IX Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming: University of Saint Etienne, 2003; 255-260
  • Bartlett R. Introduction to sports biomechanics: analyzing human movement patterns. New York: Routledge, 191-195; 2007
  • Chatard J-C, Girold S, Caudal N, Cossor J, Mason B. Analysis of the 200 m events in the Sydney Olympic Games. IX Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming: University of Saint Etienne, 2003; 261-264
  • Clarys JP, Cabri J. Electromyography and the study of the sports movements: a review. J Sport Sci, 1993; 11: 379-448[Crossref]
  • Cornett AC, White JC, Wright BV, Willmont AP, Stager JM. Racing start safety: head depth and head speed during competitive backstroke starts. IJARE, 2001; 5: 389-401
  • Cossor JM, Mason BR. Swim start performances at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. XIX International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports: University of San Francisco, 2001; 70-73
  • de Jesus K, de Jesus K, Figueiredo P, Gonçalves P, Pereira S, Vilas-Boas JP, Fernandes RJ. Biomechanical characterization of the backstroke start in immersed and emerged feet conditions. XI Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming: Norwegian School of Sport Science; 2010; 64-66
  • de Jesus K, de Jesus K, Figueiredo P, Gonçalves P, Pereira S, Vilas-Boas JP, Fernandes R. Biomechanical analysis of backstroke swimming starts. Int J Sports Med, 2011a; 32: 546-551 [Crossref][WoS]
  • de Jesus K, de Jesus K, Figueiredo P, Gonçalves P, Pereira SM, Vilas-Boas JP, Fernandes R. Electromyographic analysis of two different feet positions in backstroke start. XXIX International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports: University of Porto 2011b; 191-194
  • de Jesus K, de Jesus K, Machado L, Fernandes R, Vilas-Boas JP. Linear kinematics of the underwater undulatory swimming phase performed after two backstroke starting techniques. XXX International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports: Australian Catholic University, 2012; 371-373
  • de Jesus K, de Jesus K, Figueiredo P, Gonçalves P, Pereira SM, Vilas-Boas JP, Fernandes RJ. Backstroke start kinematic and kinetic changes due to different feet positioning. J Sport Sci, 2013; 31: 1665-1675[WoS][Crossref]
  • FINA. Federation International de Natation, 2013. Available at: http://www.fina.org/H2O/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4161&Itemid14; accessed on 17.10.2013
  • Girold S, Chatard J-C, Cossor J, Mason B. Specific strategy for the medallists versus finalists and semifinalists in the men’s 200 m backstroke at the Sydney Olympic Games. XIX International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports: University of San Francisco, 2001; 27-30
  • Green RC. A biomechanical analysis comparing the whip start with the conventional backstroke start. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Brigham Young University, Idaho; 1987
  • Green R, Cryer W, Bangerter B, Lewis K, Walker J. Comparative analyses of two methods of backstroke starting: conventional and whip. V International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports. University of Greece, 1987; 281-292
  • Guimarães ACS, Hay JG. A mechanical analysis of the grab starting technique in swimming. Int J Sport Biomech, 1985; 1: 25-35
  • Hermes HJ, Freriks B. European recommendations for surface electromyography: results of the SENIAM project. Enschede, Netherlands: Roessingh research and development, 1999.
  • Hohmann A, Fehr U, Kirsten R, Krueger T. Biomechanical analysis of the backstroke start technique in swimming. E-J Bew Train, 2008; 2: 28-33
  • Ikuta Y, Mason B, Cossor J. A comparison of Japanese finalists to other finalists in the 100 m swimming races at the Sydney Olympic Games. XIX International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports: University of San Francisco, 2001; 75-77
  • Kudo S, Lee MK. Prediction of propulsive force exerted by the hand in swimming. XI Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming: Norwegian School of Sport Science, 2010; 112-114
  • Maglischo EW. Swimming fastest: the essential reference on technique, training, and program design. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics, 283-287; 2003
  • Miller JA, Hay JG, Wilson BD. Starting techniques of elite swimmers. J Sport Sci, 1984; 2: 213-223[Crossref]
  • NCAA. National College Athletic Association. NCAA men’s and women’s swimming and diving rules. Available at: http://www.naia.org/fls/27900/1NAIA1/resources/sid/Rule%20Books/SW; accessed on 20.06.2013
  • Nguyen C, Bradshaw EJ, Pease D, Wilson C. Is the starting with the feet out of the water faster in backstroke swimming? Sports Biom, 2014; 13: 1-12[WoS]
  • Rea WM, Soth S. Revolutionary backstroke start. Swim Tech, 1967; 3: 94-95
  • Schwameder H. Aspects and challenges of applied sport biomechanics research. XXVI International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports: Seoul National University, 2008; 25-28
  • Stratten G. A comparison of three backstroke starts. Swim Tech, 1970; 7: 55-60
  • Siljeg K, Leko G, Mikulic P. Situational success in 100-m backstroke event at the 2004 and 2008 European Swimming Championships. Sport Sci, 2011; 4: 28-31
  • Takeda T, Takagi H, Tsubakimoto S. Effect of inclination and position of new swimming starting block’s back plate on track-start performance. Sport Biomech, 2012; 11: 370-381[Crossref][WoS]
  • Takeda T, Itoi O, Takagi H, Tsubakimoto S. Kinematic analysis of the backstroke start: differences between backstroke specialists and non-specialists. J Sport Sci, 2014; 32: 635-641[WoS][Crossref]
  • Thanopoulos V, Rozi G, Okic̆ić T, Dopsai M, Jorgić B, Madić D, Velic̆kovic S, Milanović Z, Spanou F, Batis E. Differences in the efficiency between the grab and track starts for both genders in Greek young swimmers. J Hum Kinet, 2012; 32: 43-51
  • Theut KM, Jensen RL. A comparison of two backstroke starts. XXIV International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports. University of Salzburg, 2006; 1-5
  • Thow JL, Naemi R, Sanders RH. Comparison of modes of feedback on glide performance in swimming. J Sport Sci, 2012; 30: 43-52[Crossref][WoS]
  • Toubekis AG, Drosou E, Gourgoulis V, Thomaidis S, Douda H, Tokmakidis SV. Competitive performance, training load and physiological responses during tapering in young swimmers. J Hum Kin, 2013; 38: 125-134
  • Vantorre J, Seifert L, Fernandes RJ, Vilas-Boas JP, Chollet D. Comparison of grab start between elite and trained swimmers. Int J Sports Med, 2010; 31: 887-893[WoS][Crossref][PubMed]
  • Vantorre J, Chollet D, Seifert L. Biomechanical analysis of the swim-start: a review. J Sports Sci Med, 2014; 13: 223-231
  • Vilas-Boas JP, Fernandes RJ. Swimming starts and turns: determinant factors of swimming performance. Actes des 3èmes journées spécialisées de natation. Université Lille, 2003; 84-95
  • Wilson BD, Howard A. The use of cluster analysis in movement description and classification of the backstroke swim start. VIII-B Biomechanics. Human Kinetics, 1223-1230; 1983
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
Identyfikatory
Identyfikator YADDA
bwmeta1.element.-psjd-doi-10_2478_hukin-2014-0058
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