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2013 | 39 | 1 | 231-242
Tytuł artykułu

The Athlete's Perception of Coaches’ Behavior Towards Competitors with a Different Sports Level

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
The study was designed to examine how active and former athletes across a different sports level perceived coaching behavior. Eighty competitive athletes (44 males and 36 females; 21.89 ±1.48 years of age; 8.35 ± 3.65 years of competitive experience) from the University School of Physical Education in Cracow, Poland, participated in the study. They represented both individual (n = 50) and team sports (n = 30). Seventeen participants were internationally renowned and 63 were recognized for competitive excellence at a national level. The participants responded to a demographic survey and the Coaches’ Behaviors Survey. The qualitative analysis procedures were employed to extract themes from open-ended questions. It was confirmed that coaches who perceived their athletes as more skilled, also treated them differently. Female athletes as compared with male athletes, more frequently pointed at the leniency in coach’s behavior towards highly skilled athletes, and perceived it as a factor inhibiting athletic development. Additionally, women often found individualization of the training process as a behavior reinforcing development. Less accomplished athletes more often pointed out to “a post-training session interest in the athlete” as directed only towards more accomplished counterparts; however, they indicated “leniency and favoring” less often than the athletes with international achievements. They also listed “excessive criticism” as a type of behavior hindering development, but they indicated coaches’ “authoritarianism and distance” less frequently than the more accomplished counterparts. The study added data to the discussion of the Pygmalion effect and the phenomenon of the self-fulfilling prophecy both in general (Rosenthal and Jacobson, 1968; Harris and Rosenthal, 1985; Jussim, 1989) and sport psychology (Harris and Rosenthal, 1985; Horn et al., 1998; Solomon and Kosmitzki, 1996; Solomon et al., 1998; Solomon, 2001).
Wydawca

Rocznik
Tom
39
Numer
1
Strony
231-242
Opis fizyczny
Daty
wydano
2013-12-01
online
2013-12-31
Twórcy
  • Department of Psychology , University School of Physical Education in Cracow, Poland.
autor
  • Department of Psychology , University School of Physical Education in Cracow, Poland.
Bibliografia
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  • Becker AJ. It’s Not What They Do, It’s How They Do It: Athlete Experiences of Great Coaching. InternationalJournal of Sports Science & Coaching, 2009; 4 (1): 93-119[WoS]
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  • Chelladurai P, Kuga DJ, O'Bryant CP. Individual differences, perceived task characteristics, and preferences for teaching and coaching. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1999; 70: 179-189[Crossref]
  • Davenport TH, Beck JC. The Attention Economy: Understanding the New Currency of Business. Harvard Business School Press; 2001
  • Ericsson KA. Development of Elite Performance and Deliberate Practice: An Update from the Perspective of the Expert Performance Approach. (In) Starkes JL & Ericsson KA (Ed). Expert Performance in Sports:Advances in Research on Sport Expertise, Champaign, Il: Human Kinetics, 49-83; 2003
  • Gibbs GR. Analyzing Qualitative Data. London: SAGE Publications; 2007
  • Harris M, Rosenthal R. Mediation of interpersonal expectancy effects: 31 metaanalyses. Psychological Bulletin, 1985; 97: 363-386[Crossref]
  • Hodge K. Team dynamics. (In) Morris T & Summers J (Ed). Sport Psychology: Theory, Applications and Issues, Milton: John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd, 210-233; 2004
  • Horn TS, Lox CL, Labrador F. The self-fulfilling prophecy theory: When coaches expectations become reality. (In) Williams J (Ed). Applied Sport Psychology, Personal Growth to Peak Performance, Mountain View: Mayfield Publishing Co, 74-91; 1998
  • Jussim L. Self-fulfilling prophecies: A theoretical and integrative review. Psychological Review, 1986; 93: 429-445[Crossref]
  • Jussim L. Teacher expectations: Self-fulfilling prophecies, perceptual biases, and accuracy. Journal ofPersonality and Social Psychology, 1989; 57: 469-480
  • Konter E. Perception of leadership power of coaches and athletes according to their gender. Spormetre, 2007; V(2): 85-90
  • Konter E. Perception of soccer players about leadership powers according to their level of play. SocialBehavior and Personality, 2009; 37(4): 503-512
  • Kenow LJ, Williams JM. Relationship between anxiety, self-confidence, and evaluation of coaching behaviors. The Sport Psychologist, 1992; 6(4): 344-357
  • Lago-Peñas C. Coach Mid-Season Replacement and Team Performance in Professional Soccer. Journal ofHuman Kinetics, 2011; 28: 115-122
  • Lorimer R, Jowett S. Empathic accuracy in coach-athlete dyads who participate in team and individual sports. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 2009; 10(1): 152-158[WoS]
  • Martin MM, Rocca KA, Cayanus JL, Weber K. Relationship between Coaches' use of Behavior Alteration Techniques and Verbal Aggression on Athletes' Motivation and Affect. Journal of Sport Behavior, 2009; 32(2): 227-241
  • Martinek T. Children's perceptions of teaching behaviors: An attributional model for explaining teacher expectancy effects. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 1989; 8: 318-328
  • Martinek T. Confirmation of a teacher expectancy model: Student perceptions and causal attributions of teaching behaviors. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1988; 59: 118-126[Crossref]
  • Martinek TJ. Pygmalion in the Gym: A Model for the Communication of Teacher Expectations in Physical Education. Research Quarterly, 1981; 52(1): 58-67
  • Merton R. The self-fulfilling prophecy. Antioch Review, 1948; 8: 193-210[Crossref]
  • Miller TW, Ogilvie BC, Branch J. Sport psychology consultation: The influence of gender on learning style. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 2008; 60(3): 279-285
  • Monazami M, Hedayatikatooli A, Neshati A, Beiki Y. A Comparison of the Motivation of Male and Female Competitive Athletes in Golestan, Iran. Annals of Biological Research, 2012; 3(1): 31-35
  • Rosenthal R, Jacobson L. Pygmalion in the Classroom. New York: Holt, Rinehard and Windston; 1968
  • Short SE, Short MW. Essay: Role of the coach in the coach-athlete relationship. The Lancet, 2005; 366(12): 29-30
  • Skarzynska K. Perception of the people. Warsaw: PWN; 1981
  • Solomon GB, Golden AJ, Ciapponi TM, Martin AD. Coach expectations and differential feedback: Perceptual flexibility revisited. Journal of Sport Behavior, 1998; 21: 298-310
  • Solomon GB, Kosmitzki C. Perceptual flexibility and differential feedback among intercollegiate basketball coaches. Journal of Sport Behavior, 1996; 19: 163-177
  • Solomon GB, Rhea DJ. Sources of expectancy information among college coaches: A qualitative test of expectancy theory. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 2008; 3(2): 251-268[WoS]
  • Solomon GB. Performance and personality impression cues as predictors of athletic performance. An extension of expectancy theory. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 2001; 32(1): 88-100
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  • Trouilloud DO, Sarrazin PG, Martinek TJ, Guillet E. The influence of teacher expectations on student achievement in physical education classes: Pygmalion revisited. European Journal of Social Psychology, 2002; 32: 591-607[Crossref]
  • Turman PD. Athletic coaching from an instructional communication perspective: The influence of coach experience on high school wrestlers' preferences and perceptions of coaching behaviors across a season. Communication Education, 2003; 52: 73-86[Crossref]
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Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
Identyfikatory
Identyfikator YADDA
bwmeta1.element.-psjd-doi-10_2478_hukin-2013-0086
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