Gender inequalities in Polish and international sports organisations
Background: The aim of this article is to check whether gender inequalities occur in Polish sports organisations and what the scale of those inequalities is in comparison to international organisations. Other aims relate to verification whether there exists a policy to align these inequalities: provisions prohibiting discrimination due to gender, rules and regulations providing women with a specified number of seats in the crucial positions of the organisation and activity of women’s sports committees. Material/Methods: The study used methods characteristic of sociology, especially methods of examining official documents: on the one hand, information generated by other empirical data from official documents of the organisation; on the other hand, the content analysis of official documents of the organisation. The sample consists of six Polish and six international sports organisations. Results: The results of research showed that in Polish sports organisations fewer women work than in international organisations; there are also fewer women in committees and fewer women committees (if they have been established). The content analysis of official documents indicates that international organisations place more pressure on preventing discrimination by using appropriate provisions in the statutes, reserving places for women in committees or paying attention to the language used in documents. Conclusions: The findings revealed that Polish sports organisations do not implement the strategy to reduce the degree of discrimination due to gender. They remain blind to issues connected with gender and its influence on the functioning of women in sport and in sports organisations.
- 1. Connell RW. Gender&Power. Cambridge: Polity Press; 1987.
- 2. Messner M, Dworkin S. Just do what? Sport, bodies, gender. In: Scraton S, Flintoff A, eds. Gender and Sport. A reader. London, New York: Routledge; 2002, 17-30.
- 3. Anderson ED. The maintenance of masculinity among syeseholders of sport. Sport Management Review. 2009;12:3-14.[Crossref]
- 4. Fullgar S, Toohey K. Introduction to gender and sport management special issue: challenges and changes. Sport Management Review. 2009;12:199-201.[Crossref]
- 5. Acker J. Hierarchies, job, bodies. A theory of gendered organizations. Gender Soc. 1990);4(2):139-158.[Crossref]
- 6. Rao A, Stuart R, Kelleher D. Gender at work. Organizational change for equality. Bloomfield: Kumarian Press; 1999.
- 7. Shaw S, Frisby W. Can gender be more equitable?: Promoting an alternative frame for sport management research, education and practice. J Sport Manage. 2006;20:483-509.
- 8. Skirstad B. Gender policy and organizational change: A contextual approach. Sport Management Review. 2009;12:202-216.[Crossref]
- 9. Sibson R. “I was banging my head against a brick wall”: Exclusionary power and the gendering of sport organizations, J Sport Manage. 2010;24:379-399.
- 10. Shaw S, Hoeber L. “A strong man is a direct and a direct women is a bitch”: Gendered discourses and their influence on employment roles in sport organizations. J Sport Manage. 2007;17:347-375.
- 11. Pfister G, Radke S. Dropping out: Why male and female leaders in German Sports federations break off their careers. Sport Management Review. 2006;9:111-139.[Crossref]
- 12. Pfister G, Radke S. Sport, women, and leadership: Results of project on executives in German sport organizations. Eur J Sport Sci. 2009;9:229-243.[WoS][Crossref]
- 13. Rapley T. Analiza konwersacji, dyskursu i dokumentow [Analysis of conversation, discourse and documents], transl. A. Gasior-Niemiec. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo PWN; 2010. Polish.
- 14. Connell RW. Debates about men, new research on masculinities. In: Scraton S, Flintoff A, eds. Gender and Sport. A reader. London, New York: Routledge; 2002, 161-167.
- 15. Messner M. Yesing the field. Women, men, and sports. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press;2002.
- 16. Whitson D. The embodiement of gender: Discipline, domination and empowerment. In: Scraton S, Flintoff A, eds. Gender and Sport. A reader. London, New York: Routledge; 2002, 227-241.
- 17. Brackenridge C. Men loving, men hating women: The crisis of masculinity and violence to women in sport. In: Scraton S, Flintoff A, eds. Gender and Sport. A reader. London, New York: Routledge, 2002, 255-269.
- 18. Ducan MC, Hasbrook CA. Denial of power in televised women’s sports. In: Scraton S, Flintoff A, eds.Gender and Sport. A reader. London, New York: Routledge; 2002, 83-94.
- 19. Ranzetti CM, Curran DJ. Kobiety, mezczyzni i spoleczenstwo [Women, men and society], transl. by A.Gromkowska-Melosik. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo PWN; 2008, 316-320. Polish.
- 20. Dijkstra AG, Plantega J. Ekonomia i płec. Pozycja zawodowa kobiet w Unii Europejskiej [Economics vs gender. Professional position of women in UE], transl. by A. Grzybek, Gdansk: GWP; 2003, 56-58, 139-147. Polish.