Risk Factors for Disagreement between Self and Proxy Reports on Physical Activity of Children and Young Adolescents
Background: Self and proxy-reports sometimes are the main source of information on physical activity among schoolchildren. To pool the together, the knowledge on comparability is required. The main aim of the study was to assess the comparability of data gathered from schoolchildren and their mothers concerning physical activity of youths and to identify factors associated with disagreement. Material/Methods: A cohort of 91 children (66% girls), aged 7-15 years, and their mothers were studied using a questionnaire in a cross-sectional design. Information gathered included average leisure time physical activity during the summer and winter weeks over one year prior to the interview. Results: The observed level of Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient for agreement between children and their mothers varied from 0.32 for TV/movie viewing to 0.79 for non-seasonal activity. Sedentary lifestyle (>25.5 hours in sedentary activity/week) was identified as a factor associated with disagreement in reports on general seasonal activity (OR=5.47, 95%CI: 1.78-16.83) and on seasonal team games (OR=5.42, 95%CI: 1.74-16.88). Increase in categories of BMI percentiles was associated with an increased risk of disagreement (p for trend 0.037, 0.041; respectively). Conclusions: The comparability of information on the level of children’s and young adolescents’ leisure time physical activity depends on the nature of this activity. Sedentary lifestyle and increased body mass index may be responsible for disagreement in some types of physical activity. The use of parental proxy reporting as a supplementary source of information on the level of physical activity of children should be applied, if ever, with caution.
- Department of Epidemiology, Chair of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Kopernika St 7, 31-034, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland, Phone +48 12 4231003, fax. + 48 12 4228795, email@example.com
- Department of Epidemiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland
- 1. Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Report, 2008. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [bhttp://health.gov/paguidelines] [accessed on Feb 16, 2012]
- 2. Biddle SJ, Gorely T, Pearson N, Bull FC. An assessment of self-reported physical activity instruments in young people for population surveillance: Project ALPHA. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2011;8:1.[WoS][PubMed][Crossref]
- 3. Gordon-Larsen P, McMurray RG, Popkin BM. Determinants of adolescent physical activity and inactivity patterns. Pediatrics 2000;105:e83.[Crossref]
- 4. Livingstone MB, Robson PJ, Wallace JM, McKinley MC. How active are we? Levels of routine physical activity in children and adults. Proc Nutr Soc 2003;62:681-701.[Crossref][PubMed]
- 5. Durante R, Ainsworth BE. The recall of physical activity: using a cognitive model of the questionanswering process. Med Sci Sport Exerc 1996;28:1282-1291.[Crossref]
- 6. Taylor RW, Murdoch L, Carter P, Gerrard DF, Williams SM, Taylor BJ. Longitudinal study of physical activity and inactivity in preschoolers: The FLAME study. Med Sci Sport Exerc 2009;41:96-102.[Crossref][WoS]
- 7. Sirard JR, Pate RR. Physical activity assessment in children and adolescents. Sports Med 2001;31:439-454.[Crossref][PubMed]
- 8. Anderson VA, Lajoie G. Development of memory and learning skills in school-aged children: a neuropsychological perspective. Appl Neuropsychol 1996;3:128-139.[PubMed][Crossref]
- 9. Robitail S, Simeoni M, Erhart M, Ravens-Sieberer U, Bruil J, Auquier P. Validation of the European proxy KIDSCREEN-52 pilot test health-related quality of life questionnaire: First results. Journal of Adolescent Health 2006;39:596.e1-596.e10.
- 10. Chaumeton N, Duncan SC, Duncan TE, Strycker LA. A measurement model of youth physical activity using pedometer and self, parent, and peer reports. Int J Behav Med 2011;18:209-15.[Crossref][PubMed]
- 11. Rosner B, Hennekens CH. Analytic methods in matched pair epidemiological studies. Int J Epidemiol 1978;7:367-372.[Crossref][PubMed]
- 12. World Health Organization. WHO growth reference 2007 data for 5-19 years [http://www.who.int/growthref/en] [accessed on-line on Mar 7, 2012]
- 13. Parra GR, O'Neill SE, Sher KJ. Reliability of self-reported age of substance involvement onset. Psychol Addict Behav 2003;17:211-218.[PubMed][Crossref]
- 14. Lintonen T, Ahlstrom S, Metso L. The reliability of self-reported drinking in adolescence. Alcohol 2004;39:362-368.
- 15. 15. Johnson TP, Mott JA. The reliability of self-reported age of onset of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use. Addiction 2001;96:1187-1198.[Crossref][PubMed]
- 16. Whiteman D, Green A. Wherein lies the truth? Assessment of agreement between parent proxy and child respondents. Int J Epidemiol 1997;26:855-859.[PubMed][Crossref]
- 17. Dusza SW, Oliveria SA, Geller AC, Marghoob AA, Halpern AC. Student-parent agreement in selfreported sun behaviors. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005;52:896-900.[Crossref]
- 18. Jozefiak T, Larsson B, Wichstrom L, Mattejat F, Ravens-Sieberer U. Quality of life as reported by school children and their parents: A cross-sectional survey. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2008;19:6-34.
- 19. Inyang I, Benke G, Morrissey J, McKenzie R, Abramson M. How well do adolescents recall use of mobile telephones? Results of a validation study. BMC Med Res Methodol 2009;12:9-36.[WoS]
- 20. Sawyer MG, Baghurst P, Clark J. Differences between reports from children, parents and teachers: Implications for epidemiological studies. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 1992;26:652-660.
- 21. Levin S, Jacobs DR, Ainsworth BE, Richardson MR, Leon AS. Intra-individual variation and estimates of usual physical activity. Ann Epidemiol 1999;9:481-488.[Crossref][PubMed]
- 22. Chinapaw MJ, Mokkink LB, van Poppel MN, van Mechelen W, Terwee CB. Physical activity questionnaires for youth: a systematic review of measurement properties. Sports Med 2010;40:539-563.[WoS][PubMed][Crossref]
- 23. Marcotte L, Hennessy E, Dwyer J, et al. Validity and reliability of a calcium checklist in early elementaryschool children. Public Health Nutr 2008;11:57-64.[PubMed][WoS]
- 24. Dollman J, Ridley K, Magarey A, Martin M, Hemphill E. Dietary intake, physical activity and TV viewing as mediators of the association of socioeconomic status with body composition: A cross-sectional analysis of Australian youth. Int J Obes 2007;31:45-52.[Crossref][WoS]
- 25. Voyer D, Postma A, Brake B, Imperato-McGinley J. Gender differences in object location memory: A meta-analysis. Psychon Bull Rev 2007;14:23-38.[PubMed][Crossref]
- 26. Evenson KR, Birnbaum AS, Bedimo-Rung AL, et al. Girls' perception of physical environmental factors and transportation: reliability and association with physical activity and active transport to school. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2006;3:28.[Crossref][PubMed]
- 27. Huang YJ, Wong SH, Salmon J, Hui SS. Reliability and validity of psychosocial and environmental correlates measures of physical activity and screen-based behaviors among Chinese children in Hong Kong. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2011;8:16[WoS][Crossref]
- 28. Bush PJ, Iannotti RJ. Alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use among fourth-grade urban schoolchildren in 1988/89 and 1990/91. Am J Public Health 1993;83:111-114.
- 29. Tapia-Conyer R, Cravioto P, De La Rosa B, Velez C. Risk factors for inhalant abuse in juvenile offenders: The case of Mexico. Addiction 1995;90:43-49.[Crossref]
- 30. Shew ML, Fortenberry JD, Miles P, Amortegui AJ. Interval between menarche and first sexual intercourse, related to risk of human papillomavirus infection. J Pediatr 1994;125:661-666.[Crossref][PubMed]
- 31. Thomas S, Acton C, Nixon J, Battistutta D, Pitt WR, Clark R. Effectiveness of bicycle helmets in preventing head injury in children: Case-control study. BMJ 1994;308:173-176.[Crossref][PubMed]
- 32. Wolf AM, Gortmaker SL, Cheung L, Gray HM, Herzog DB, Colditz GA. Activity, inactivity, and obesity: Racial, ethnic, and age differences among schoolgirls. Am J Public Health 1993;83:1625-1627.[PubMed][Crossref]
- 33. Singh R, Martin BR, Hickey Y, et al. Comparison of self-reported, measured, metabolizable energy intake with total energy expenditure in overweight teens. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89:1744-1750.[PubMed][WoS][Crossref]