Non-habitual wearing of high-heeled shoes increases loading coefficient, stress and forefoot-rearfoot load imbalance in females as revealed by the modified velocity field diagram
Study aim: To determine the effects of non-habitual wearing of high-heeled shoes on loading coefficient, loading stress and forefoot-rearfoot load imbalance in females Materials and methods: Fifty young adult female subjects were selected using a convenience sampling technique, and studied utilising crossover control research design. They walked barefoot and thereafter, in high-heeled shoes; for a distance of 10- metre measured out in a gait laboratory. They demonstrated their gait twice for each speed, along a 10 metres walkway, at five speeds varying from very slow to very fast. Mean values of steps and time were recorded and used to calculate the values of velocity, stride length, stride frequency, double-support, swing, single-support, and stance phases of stride. These were adopted to form a modified velocity field diagram (MVFD). The data obtained were statistically analysed using a t-test for correlated means, with alpha set at 0.05. Results: The MVFDs revealed that the F/R load ratios were obtained as 0.67 and 1.5, while loading coefficient was 0.4 and 0.6, for barefoot and high-heeled walking, respectively. Loading coefficient and stress in high-heeled walking was 1.50 and 1.88 of the value in barefoot walking, respectively. Conclusions: Non-habitual wearing of high-heeled shoes increased F/R load imbalance, loading coefficient, and stress in the foot. However, there was no evidence of gait pathology in the subjects when they walked barefoot. Thus, non-habitual use of high-heeled shoes by the subjects did not translate to significant residual biomechanical derangements in the locomotor apparatus otherwise the kinematic data recorded for barefoot walking would have approximated the values obtained during high heeled walking.
- 1. Albuquerque F.M.A.O., Silva E.B. (2003) Saltos altos e artralgias nos membros inferiores e coluna lombar. Fisioter Bras., 5(1): 18-21.
- 2. Carolyn S. Sterke, Arianne P. Verhagen, Ed F. van Beeck, Tischa J.M. van der Cammen (2008) The Influence of Drug Use on Fall Incidents among Nursing Home Residents: A Systematic Review. International Psychogeriatrics, 20: 890-910. DOI:10.1017/S104161020800714X.[WoS][Crossref]
- 3. Eke-Okoro S.T. (1982) The H-reflex Studied in the Presence of Alcohol, Aspirin, Caffeine, Force and Fatigue Electromyogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 22; 579-589.
- 4. Eke-Okoro S.T. (1985) The Influence of Load on Certain Basal Gait-Characteristics. Linkoping University Medical Dissertation, No. 200.
- 5. Eke-Okoro S.T. (1989) Velocity Field Diagram of Human Gait. Clin. Biomech., 4: 92-96.[Crossref]
- 6. Gefen A. Megido-Ravid M., Itzchak Y., Arcan M. (2002) Analysis of muscular fatigue and foot stability during high heeled gait. Gait and Posture, 15: 56-63.[PubMed]
- 7. Ibeneme S.C. (2008) Predicting the Critical Point for the Onset of Diabetic Foot Ulcer Using the Velocity Field Diagram. Doctoral Degree Thesis Submitted to The Faculty Of Health Sciences and Technology, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu.
- 8. Iunes D.H. Monte-Raso, Santos C.B.A., Castro F.A., Salgado H,S. (2008) Postural influence of high heels among adult women: analysis by computerized photogrammetry. Brazil. J. Physical Therapy, 12(6), 441-446.
- 9. Kapandji A.I. (2000) Fisiologia articular: tronco e coluna vertebral. 5ª ed. São Paulo: Panamericana, p. 253.
- 10. Kendall F.P., McCreary E.K., Provance P.G. (2007) Músculos: provas e funções. 5ª ed. São Paulo: Manole, p. 454.
- 11. Klebe S., Stolze H., Grensing K., Volkmann J., Wenzelburger R., Deuschl G. (2005) Influence of Alcohol on Gait in Patients with Essential Tremor. Neurology, 65(1): 96-101. DOI: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000167550.97413.1f.[PubMed][Crossref]
- 12. Ledoux W.R., Hillstrom H.J. (2002) The distributed plantar vertical force of neutrally aligned and pes planus feet. Gait Posture, 15(1): 1-9.[Crossref][PubMed]
- 13. Linder M., Saltzman C.L., (1998) A history of medical scientists on high heels. Inter. J. Health Service, 28(2): 201-225.[Crossref]
- 14. Nordin N., Frankel V.H. (2003) Biomecânica básica do sistema músculo esquelético. 3ª ed. Guanabara Koogan. p. 401.
- 15. Olaogun M.O.B., Edewor N.S. (1994) The Effect of Foot Wear on Postural Stability. J. Nig. Soc. Physioth., 6: 37-39.
- 16. Rossi W.A. (1999) Why Shoes Make Normal Gait Impossible. Pediatry Management. Retrieved from www. unshod.org
- 17. Santos A. (2005) Postura corporal: um guia para todos. São Paulo: Summus editorial, p. 117.