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2013 | 5 | 1 |
Tytuł artykułu

State anxiety change after a parachute jump and its determinants: gender, experience, and temperament features

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
Study aim: To determine the role of gender and experience level as factors differentiating state anxiety before and after a parachute jump, and to ascertain relationships between state anxiety and temperament features. Material and methods: The research involved 143 parachutists (98 men and 45 women) aged from 17 to 49 years old, including 73 beginners and 70 advanced parachutists. The following questionnaires were applied: the Formal Characteristics of Behavior-Temperament Inventory by Zawadzki and Strelau, the Sensation Seeking Scale by Zuckerman, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory of Spielberger et al. Results: There was a significant decrease in state anxiety level after a parachute jump (before M = 32.66; after M = 28.57; p < 0.001). Its level is significantly higher in beginners than in experienced skydivers (p < 0.001). The level of experience is also a negative predictor of state anxiety level before the jump and its decrease after the jump. Conclusion: As experience grows, the positive adaptation to stress caused by parachute jump appears, which results with lowering the state anxiety level.
Słowa kluczowe
Wydawca

Rocznik
Tom
5
Numer
1
Opis fizyczny
Daty
online
2014-01-17
Twórcy
  • Department of Social and Cultural Foundations in Tourism, The Faculty of Tourism and Recreation, Jozef Pilsudski University of Physical Education, ul. Marymoncka 34, 00-968 Warsaw, Poland
  • Department of Social and Cultural Foundations in Tourism, The Faculty of Tourism and Recreation, Jozef Pilsudski University of Physical Education, ul. Marymoncka 34, 00-968 Warsaw, Poland
Bibliografia
  • 1. Bołdak, A. (2011) Cechy temperamentu, zapotrzebowanie na stymulację i ryzyko a stan lęku u początkujących i doświadczonych skoczków spadochronowych [Temperament features, need for stimulation and risk and state anxiety among novice and experienced skydivers]. Unpublished doctoral dissertation; Jozef Pilsudski University of Physical Education, Warsaw.
  • 2. Breivik, G., W.T. Roth, P.E. Jørgensen, (1998). Personality, psychological states and heart rate in novice and expert parachutists. Pers. Indiv. Differ., 25: 365-380.[Crossref]
  • 3. Endler N.S., N.L. Kocovski (2001) State and trait anxiety revisited. J. Anxiety Disord., 15: 231-245.[Crossref]
  • 4. Epstein S., W.D. Fen (1965) Steepness of approach and avoidance gradient in humans as a function of experience: Theory and experiment. J. Experiment. Psychol., 70: 1-12.
  • 5. Epstein S., W.D. Fenz (1967) Gradients of Physiological Arousal in Parachutists as a Function of an Approaching Jump. Psychosom. Med., 29: 33-51.
  • 6. Franken I.H.A., C. Ziijlstra, P. Muris (2006) Are nonpharmalogical induced rewards related to anhedonia? A study among skydivers. Prog. Neuro-Psychoph., 30: 297-300.[Crossref]
  • 7. Gould D., L. Petlichkoff, R.S. Weinberg (1984) Antecedents of temporal changes in and relationships between CSAI-2 subcomponents. J. Sport Psychol., 6: 289-304.
  • 8. Guillen F., R. Sanchez (2009) Competitive anxiety in expert female athletes: Sources and intensity of anxiety in national team and first division on Spanish basketball players. Percept. Motor Skill., 109: 407-419.[WoS]
  • 9. Landers D.M., S.H. Boutcher (1986) Arousal-Performance relationships. In: J.M. Williams (Ed.), Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance (pp. 163-184). Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield.
  • 10. Loas G. (2003) Alexithymie et anhédonie [Alexithymia and anhedonia]. In: Corcos M., Speranza M. (Eds.), Psychopathologie de l’alexithymie [Psychopathology of alexithymia]. Dunod, Paris.
  • 11. Matud, M.P. (2004) Gender differences in stress and coping styles. Pers. Indiv. Differ., 37: 1401-1415.[Crossref]
  • 12. Oleszkiewicz-Zsurzs, Z. (1985) Adaptacja Skali Poszukiwania Wrażeń (SSS) M. Zuckermana do warunków polskich [Polish adaptation of Sensations Seeking Scale (SSS) of M. Zuckerman]. Przegląd Psychologiczny, 28: 1123-1128.
  • 13. Pokrovsky V. M., A.N. Mingalev (2012) The regulatory-adaptive state and evaluation of stress resistance in humans. Human Physiol., 38: 63-66.
  • 14. Powell F.M., J.P. Verner (1982) Anxiety and Performance Relationship in First Time Parachutists. J. Sport Psychol., 4: 184 – 188.
  • 15. Price I.R., C. Bunedsen (2005) Emotional changes in skydivers in relation to experience. Pers. Indiv. Differ., 38: 1203-1211.[Crossref]
  • 16. Roth W.T., G. Breivik, P.E. Jørgensen, S. Hofmann, (1996) Activation in novice and expert parachutists while jumping. Psychophysiology, 33: 63-72.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • 17. Schedlowski M., U. Tewes (1992) Physiological arousal and perception of bodily state during parachute jumping. Psychophysiology, 29: 63-77.
  • 18. Slanger E., K.E. Rudestam (1997) Motivation and Disinhibition in High Risk Sports: Sensation Seeking and Self-Efficacy. J. Res. Pers., 31: 355-374.[Crossref]
  • 19. Sterlini G.L., R.A. Bryant (2002) Hyperarousal and dissociation: a study of novice skydivers. Behav. Res. Ther., 40: 431–437.[Crossref]
  • 20. Wlazło E., Ł. Kozłowski, D. Skotnicki, (1999) Samokontrola emocjonalna skoczków spadochronowych [Emotional self-control among skydivers]. Sport Wyczynowy, 11–12: 52-58.
  • 21. Woodman T., N. Cazenave, C. Le Scanff, (2008) Skydiving as a means of emotion regulation: the rise and fall of anxiety and self esteem is moderated by alexithymia. J. Sport Exercise Psych., 30: 424–433.
  • 22. Woodman T., M. Huggins, C. Le Scanff, N. Cazenave (2009) Alexithymia determines the anxiety experienced in skydiving. J. Affec. Disorders, 116: 134-138.[Crossref][WoS]
  • 23. Wrześniewski K., T. Sosnowski, A. Jaworowska, D. Fecenec (2006) Polska adaptacja STAI. Podręcznik. Wydanie trzecie, rozszerzone [Polish adaptation of STAI. Manual, 3rd extended edition]. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych PTP.
  • 24. Zawadzki B., J. Strelau (1997) Formalna Charakterystyka Zachowania – Kwestionariusz Temperamentu (FCZ-KT). Podręcznik [Formal Characteristic of the Behavior – Temperament Inventory (FCB-TI). Manual]. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych PTP.
  • 25. Zuckerman M. (1979) Sensation seeking: Beyond the optimal level of arousal. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
Identyfikatory
Identyfikator YADDA
bwmeta1.element.-psjd-doi-10_2478_bhk-2013-0018
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