Dietary intake of energy and selected nutrients and plasma lipid profile in young women and men with different levels of physical activity
Study aim: The purpose was to assess dietary intake of energy and selected nutrients and plasma lipid profile in young women and men with different levels of physical activity. Material and methods: The research included a total of 116 female and male students at the University of Physical Education who differed in their levels of physical activity. Analysis of the diets was based on 24-hour dietary interviews collected over 4 days prior to blood collection. Concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), and triacylglycerol (TG) were measured in venous blood. In addition, the concentration of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and the ratios of TC / HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C were calculated. Results: Women, regardless of their physical activity levels, were characterized by a significantly higher concentration of total cholesterol in plasma (4.8 and 4.5 mmol/L, respectively - in training participants; 4.7 and 4.3 mmol/L, respectively - in non-training participants), although their dietary intake of cholesterol was significantly lower in comparison with the corresponding groups of men (282.0 and 484.7 mg, respectively - in training participants; 252.6 and 400.2 mg, respectively - in non-training participants). A trend toward a worse lipid profile of training women and men compared with the corresponding groups of non-training participants was also observed. Conclusions: Increased physical activity in the groups of training women and men was not a sufficient stimulus to induce positive changes in their lipid profiles. Nor can it be excluded that the observed differences were the result of diet, as dietary intake of cholesterol in the groups of training women and men was higher compared with the corresponding groups of non-training participants.
- 1. Bantle J.P., S.K. Raatz, W. Thomas, A. Georgopoulos (2000) Effects of dietary fructose on plasma lipids in healthy subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 72: 1128-1134.
- 2. Barona J., M.L. Fernandez (2012) Dietary cholesterol affects plasma lipid levels, the intravascular processing of lipoproteins and reverse cholesterol transport without increasing the risk for heart disease. Nutrients, 8: 1015-1025.[WoS][Crossref]
- 3. Bhardwaj S., S.J. Passi, A. Misra (2011) Overview of trans fatty acids: biochemistry and health effects. Diabetes. Metab. Syndr., 5: 161-164.[PubMed][Crossref]
- 4. Burke L.M., B. Kiens, J.L. Ivy (2004) Carbohydrates and fat for training and recovery. J. Sports Sci., 22: 15-30.[Crossref]
- 5. Coelho V.G., L.F. Caetano, R. Liberatore Júnior Rdel, J.A. Cordeiro, D.R. Souza (2005) Lipid profile and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in medicine students. Arq.Bras.Cardiol., 85: 57-62.[Crossref]
- 6. Durnin J.V., J. Womersley (1974) Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16 to 72 years. Br. J. Nutr., 32: 77-97.[Crossref]
- 7. Durstine J.L., P.W. Grandjean, P.G. Davis, M.A. Ferguson, N.L. Alderson, K.D. DuBose (2001) Blood lipid and lipoprotein adaptations to exercise: a quantitative analysis. Sports Med., 31: 1033-1062.[PubMed][Crossref]
- 8. Erkkila A.T., A.H. Lichtenstein (2006) Fiber and cardiovascular disease risk: how strong is the evidence? J.Cardiovasc.Nurs., 21: 3-8.[Crossref]
- 9. Fayet F., P. Petocz, S. Samman (2012) Prevalence and correlates of dieting in college women: a cross-sectional study. Int. J. Women’s Health, 4: 405-411.
- 10. Freedman D.S., J.D. Otvos, E.J. Jeyarajah et al. (2004) Sex and age differences in lipoprotein subclasses measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: the Framingham Study. Clin. Chem., 50: 1189-1200.[Crossref]
- 11. Fried S.K., S.P. Rao (2003) Sugars, hypertriglyceridemia, and cardiovascular disease. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 78: S873-S880.
- 12. Friedewald W.T., R. Levy, D. Fredrocson (1972) Estimation of concentration of low density lipoprotein concentration without use of the preparative ultracentrifugation. Clin. Chem., 18: 499-504.[PubMed]
- 13. Głodek E., M. Gil (2012) Evaluation of the nutrition model in students of university in Rzeszow. Rocz. Panstw. Zakl. Hig., 63: 313-317.[PubMed]
- 14. Habib S.S., M. Aslam, W. Hameed (2005) Gender differences in blood lipids and lipoprotein(a) levels in healthy individuals and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pak. J. Physiol., 1: 1-5.
- 15. Herzberg G.R. (2004) Aerobic exercise, lipoproteins, and cardiovascular disease: benefits and possible risks. Can. J. Appl. Physiol., 29: 800-807.[Crossref]
- 16. Hodson L., C.M. Skeaff, W.A. Chisholm (2001) The effect of replacing dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat on plasma lipids in free -living young adults. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 55: 908-915.[Crossref]
- 17. Human energy requirements (2004) Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation, FAO, Food and Nutrition Technical Report Series, No 1, FAO, Rome.
- 18. Jakobsen M.U., K. Overvad, J. Dyerberg, M. Schroll, B.L. Heitmann (2004) Dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: possible effect modification by gender and age. Am. J. Epidemiol., 160: 141-149.[PubMed][Crossref]
- 19. Kafatos A., C.A. Codrington (1999) Nutrition and diet for healthy lifestyles in Europe: the ‘Eurodiet’ Project. Public. Health Nutr., 3A: 327-328.[PubMed]
- 20. Lawson E.A., K.K. Miller, V.A. Mathur, M. Misra, E. Meenaghan, D.B. Herzog, A. Klibanski (2007) Hormonal and nutritional effects on cardiovascular risk markers in young women. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 92: 3089-3094.[Crossref][WoS]
- 21. Lecerf J.M., M. de Lorgeril (2011) Dietary cholesterol: from physiology to cardiovascular risk. Br. J. Nutr., 106: 6-14.[Crossref][WoS]
- 22. Lemon P.W. (2000) Beyond the zone: protein needs of active individuals. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 19: 513S-521S.[Crossref]
- 23. Li Z.L., J.D. Otvos, S. Lamon-Fava et al. (2003) Men and women differ in lipoprotein response to dietary saturated fat and cholesterol restriction. J. Nutr., 133: 3428-3433.
- 24. Lusis A.J., A.M. Fogelman, G.C. Fonarow (2004) Genetic basis of atherosclerosis: Part I. New genes and pathways. Circulation, 110: 1868-1873.[PubMed][Crossref]
- 25. Lutosławska G., K. Mazurek, A. Kęska, A. Czajkowska, P. Żmijewski (2011) Validity of self-reported dietary intakes in young men and women with different physical activity. Med. Sportiva., 15: 119-124.[Crossref]
- 26. Malara M., G. Lutosławska (2010) Physical activity, dietary habits and plasma lipoproteins in young men and women. Rocz. Panstw. Zakl. Hig., 61: 405-412.[PubMed]
- 27. McNamara D.J. (2000) Dietary cholesterol and atherosclerosis. Biochim. Biophys. Acta., 1529: 310-320.
- 28. Mente A., L. de Koning, H.S. Shannon, S.S. Anand (2009) A systematic review of the evidence supporting a causal link between dietary factors and coronary heart disease. Arch. Intern. Med., 169: 659-669.[WoS]
- 29. Montoya M.T., A. Porres, S. Serrano et al. (2002) Fatty acid saturation of the diet and plasma lipid concentrations, lipoprotein particle concentrations, and cholesterol efflux capacity. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 75: 484-491.
- 30. Müller H., A.S. Lindman, A.L. Brantsaeter, J.I. Pedersen (2003) The serum LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio is influenced more favorably by exchanging saturated with unsaturated fat than by reducing saturated fat in the diet of women. J. Nutr., 133: 78-83.
- 31. Novotny J.A., W.V. Rumpler, H. Riddick et al. (2003) Personality characteristics as predictors of underreporting of energy intake on 24-hour dietary recall interviews. J. Am. Diet. Assoc., 103: 1146-1151.[Crossref]
- 32. Okura T., Y. Nakata, K. Tanaka (2003) Effects of exercise intensity on physical fitness and risk factors for coronary heart disease. Obes. Res., 11: 1131-1139.[Crossref][PubMed]
- 33. Riccioni G., V. Sblendorio, E. Gemello et al. (2012) Dietary fibers and cardiometabolic diseases. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 13: 1524-1540.[Crossref][WoS]
- 34. Rossi L., R.E. Goya, M.A. Matayoshi, C.C. Cardoso Pereira, J. Bernardo da Silva (2009) Nutritional evaluation of taekwondo athletes. Braz. J. Biomotricity, 3: 159-166.
- 35. Sánchez-Muniz F.J. (2012) Dietary fibre and cardiovascular health. Nutr. Hosp., 27: 31-45.[WoS]
- 36. Schubert C.M., N.L. Rogers, K.E. Remsberg et al. (2006) Lipids, lipoproteins, lifestyle, adiposity and fatfree mass during middle age: the Fels Longitudinal Study. Int. J. Obes., 30: 251-260.[Crossref]
- 37. Sonestedt E., N.C. Overby, D.E. Laaksonen, B.E. Birgisdottir (2012) Does high sugar consumption exacerbate cardiometabolic risk factors and increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease? Food. Nutr. Res., 56: 1-19.[WoS]
- 38. Szponar L., K. Wolnicka, E. Rychlik (2000) Album fotografii produktów i potraw [Photo album of products and dishes]. Instytut Żywności i Żywienia, Warszawa.
- 39. The third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation and treatment of high cholesterol in adults (Adult treatment panel III). Circulation. 2002, 106: 3143-421.
- 40. Vidon C., P. Boucher, A. Cachefo, O. Peroni, F. Diraison, M. Beylot (2001) Effects of isoenergetic high-carbohydrate compared with high-fat diets on human cholesterol synthesis and expression of key regulatory genes of cholesterol metabolism. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 73: 878-884.