Step counts and self-reported physical activity among upper elementary school students vary with aerobic fitness
Study aim: The purpose of this study was to examine if step-counts during PE and self-reported PA of elementary grade students varied based on the aerobic capacity. Material and methods: Ninety elementary physical education students, enrolled in the 4th and 5th grade, from one elementary school in the Midwestern USA participated. Each participant completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C), wore a pedometer in PE to measure steps taken, and completed the PACER aerobic fitness test. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between steps taken by students and PAQ-C score in predicting aerobic capacity as measured through the PACER test. Results: Average steps significantly predicted PACER laps (β = 0.48, p < 0.01), as did the PAQ-C (β = 0.28, p < 0.001). For males, average steps significantly predicted PACER laps (β = 0.48 p < 0.01), while the PAQ-C and the PACER beta coefficients were not statistically significant (β = 0.14, p = 0.30). Results for females indicated average steps significantly predicted PACER laps (β = 0.38, p < 0.01), as did the PAQ-C (β = 0.46, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Results from this study indicate that student steps taken during PE and self-report PA has an association with students’ completed PACER laps.
- Hudson Elementary School, Hudson, IL
- Illinois State University, Normal, IL, email@example.com
- Illinois State University, Normal, IL
- Illinois State University, Normal, IL
- Illinois State University, Normal, IL
- 1. Brusseau T.A., P.H. Kulinna, C. Tudor-Locke, M. Ferry, H. van der Mars, P.W. Darst (2011) The segmented physical activity patterns of elementary school children. J. Phys. Act. Health, 8: 279-286.
- 2. Crocker P.R.E., D.A. Bailey, R.A. Faulkner, K.C. Kowalski, R. McGrath (1997) Measuring general levels of physical activity: Preliminary evidence for the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 29: 1344-1349.
- 3. Cureton, K.J., G.L. Warren (1990) Criterion-referenced standards for youth health-related fitness tests: A tutorial. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport., 61: 7-19.
- 4. Dale D., C.B. Corbin, K.S. Dale (2000) Restricting opportunities to be active during the school day: Do children compensate by increasing physical activity levels after school? Res. Q. Exerc. Sport., 71: 240-248.
- 5. Dencker, M., O. Thorsson, M.K. Karlsson, C. Linden, S. Eiberg, P. Wollmer, L.B. Anderson (2007) Gender differences and determinants of aerobic fitness in children aged 8-11 years, 99: 19-26.
- 6. Fairclough S., G. Stratton (2006) A review of physical activity levels during elementary school physical education. J. Teach.Phys. Educ.,25: 239-257.
- 7. Flohr J.A., M.K. Todd, C. Tudor-Locke (2006) Pedometer- assessed physical activity in young adolescents. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport, 77: 309-315.
- 8. Gordon-Larsen P., M.C. Melson, B.M. Popkin (2004) Longitudinal physical activity and sedentary behavior trends: adolescence to adulthood. Am. J. Prev. Med., 27: 277-283.
- 9. Gidlow C., T. Cochrane, R. Davey, H. Smith (2008) In-school and out-of-school physical activity in primary and secondary school children. J. Sports Sci., 26(13): 1411-1419.
- 10. Kahn J.A., B. Huang, M.W. Gillman, A.E. Field, S.B. Austin, G.A. Colditz, A.L. Frazier (2008) Patterns and determinants of physical activity in U.S. adolescents. J. Adolesc. Health, 42: 369-377.
- 11. Kelder S.H., C.L. Perry, K.I. Klepp (1993) Community- wide youth exercise promotion: Long-term outcomes of the Minnesota Heart Health Program and the Class of 1989 Study. J. Scholastic Health, 63: 218-223.
- 12. Kowalski K.C., P.R.E. Crocker, R.M. Donen (2004) The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) and Adolescents (PAQ-A) manual. Available at http://hkin.educ.ubc.ca/behavioural/PAQ%20manual.pdf.
- 13. Kristensen P.L., N.C. Moeller, L. Korsholm, E. Kolle, N. Wedderkopp, K. Froberg, L.B. Andersen (2010) The asscociation between aerobic fitness and physical activity in children and adolescents: the European youth heart study. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., 110: 267-275.
- 14. Le Masurier G.C., C.B. Corbin (2006) Step Counts Among Middles School Students Vary with Aerobic Fitness Level. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport., 77: 14-22.
- 15. Malina R.M. (2001) Adherence to physical activity from childhood to adulthood: a perspective from tracking studies. Quest.,53: 346-55.
- 16. Mathias, K., J.L. DePaepe, F. Konukman, S.C. Jefferies (2004) Investigation of the relationship between fitness and physical activity levels in middle school students. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport, 75: A-12.
- 17. Matsuzaka A., K. Matsuzaka, B. Wilk, O. Bar-Or (2003) Relationship between physical activity and aerobic fitness in children. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 35: S64.
- 18. Mitchell, S.A., J.L. Oslin, L.L. Griffin (2013) Teaching Sport Concepts and Skills (3rd eds.). Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL.
- 19. Morrow, J.R., P.S. Freedson (2004) Relationship between habitual physical activity and aerobic fitness in adolescents. Pediatr. Exerc. Sci., 6: 315-329.
- 20. National Association for Sport and Physical Education and American Heart Association (2012) 2012 Shape of the Nation Report: Status of Physical Education in the USA. Reston, VA: American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance.
- 21. Ridgers N.D., G. Stratton, S.J. Fairclough (2005) Assessing physical activity during recess using accelerometry. Prev. Med., 41: 102-107.
- 22. Rowlands A.V., R.G. Eston, D.K. Ingledew (1999) Relationship between activity levels, aerobic fitness, and body fat in 8- to 10-year-old children. J. Appl. Physiol., 86: 1428-1435.
- 23. Sallis J.F. (2000) Age-related decline in physical activity: a synthesis of human and animal studies. Med.Sci. Sports Exerc., 32: 1598-1600.
- 24. Schneider P.L., S.E. Crouter, O. Lukajic, D.R. Bassett (2003) Accuracy and reliability of 10 pedometers for measuring steps over a 400-m walk. Med. Sci. SportsExerc., 35(10): 1779-1784.
- 25. Scruggs P.W., S.K. Beveridge, D.L. Watson, B.D. Clocksin (2005) Quantifying physical activity in firstthough 4th-grade physical education via pedometry. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport., 76: 166-175.
- 26. Synder T., S. Dillow (2011) Digest of education statistics 2010. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, US Department of Education.
- 27. Snyder T.D., S.A. Dillow, C.M. Hoffman (2009) Digest 81. of education statistics 2008. Washington (DC): U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. NCES publication number 2009-020.
- 28. Trost S.G., R.R. Pate, J.F. Sallis, P.S. Freedson, W.C. Taylor, M. Dowda, J. Sirard (2002) Age and gender differences in objectively measured physical activity in youth. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 34: 350-355.
- 29. Tudor-Locke C., S.M. Lee, C.F. Morgan, A. Beighle, R.P. Pangrazi (2006) Children’s pedometer-determined physical activity during the segmented school day. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 38(10): 1732-1738.
- 30. US Department of Health and Human Services (2008) 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Washington (DC): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
- 31. US Department of Health and Human Services (2010) Strategies to Improve the Quality of Physical Education. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services.
- 32. US Department of Health and Human Services (2012) Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans MidcourseReport: Strategies to Increase Physical Activity AmongYouth. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
- 33. Welk G.J., M.D. Meredith (2008) Fitnessgram/ Activitygram Reference Guide. Dallas TX: The Cooper Institute; 2008, p. 27-51, 96-120, 169-178.
- 34. Welk G.J., M. Ihmels, J.J. McClain, J. Schaben (2006) The Reliability and convergent validity of field tests of body composition in young adolescents. J. Phys. Activ. Health, 3(Suppl 2): S67-S77.