Effects of 8-months yoga training on shaping the spine in people over 55
Study aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of hatha yoga practices on the shaping of the anteroposterior (AP) spinal curvatures in students of the University of the Third Age, who participated in hatha yoga classes. Material and methods: 20 women and 5 men took part in the study. Hatha yoga classes were held once a week for 90 minutes over a period of 8 months along with additional exercises including basic positions of hatha yoga in home conditions 1-2 times a week for about 30 minutes. The inclination of the AP curvatures of the spine was measured twice, before and after the end of the classes. A Rippstein plurimeter was used for the measurements. R esults: Measurements of the angle of thoracic kyphosis before starting the series of hatha yoga classes and after finishing them showed a decrease in thoracic curvature in female (p < 0.01). In case of the angle of lumbar lordosis, a reduction in this curvature as a result of yoga techniques has been observed in women (p < 0.01) too. Amounts of AP curvatures of the spine, measured after completing the series of hatha yoga classes, fluctuated around correct values better than before taking them up. Conclusion: This study has shown that yoga training leads to an improvement in the habitual body posture in case of aggravating (excessive) AP curvatures of the spine.
- 1. Anwajler J., K.Barczyk, D.Wojna, B.Ostrowska, T.Skolimowski (2010) Characteristics of body posture in the sagittal plane in elderly people - residents of social care centres. (In polish. engl. Abstract). Gerontol. Pol., 8(3): 134-139.
- 2. Chen K.M., W.S.Tseng, L.F.Ting, G.F.Huang (2007) Development and evaluation of a yoga exercise programme for older adults. J. Adv. Nurs., 57(4): 432-441. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.04115.[Crossref]
- 3. Chen K.M., W.S.Tseng (2008) Pilot-Testing the Effects of a Newly-Developed Silver Yoga Exercise Program for Female Seniors. J. Nurs. Res., 16(1): 37-45.
- 4. DiBari M., M.Chiarlone, D.Matteuzzi, S.Zacchei, C.Pozzi, V.Bellia, F.Tarantini, R.Pini, G.Masotti, N.Marchionni (2004) Thoracic kyphosis and ventilatory dysfunction in unselected older persons: An epidemiological study in Dicomano, Italy. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc., 52: 909-915.
- 5. Ettinger B., D.M.Black, M.Palermo, M.C.Nevitt, S.Melnikoff S.R.Cummings (1994) Kyphosis in older women and its relation to back pain, disability and osteopenia. The study of osteoporotic fractures. Osteoporos. Int., 4: 55-60.
- 6. Gauchard G.C., C.Jeandel, A.Tessier, P.P.Perrin (1999) Beneficial effect of proprioceptive physical activities on balance control in elderly human subjects. NeuroscienceLetters, 273(2): 81-84.
- 7. Grabara M., J.Szopa (2011) Effects of hatha yoga on the shaping of the antero-posterior curvature of the spine. Hum. Mov., 12(3): 259-263.
- 8. Grabara M., J.Szopa (2011) Habitual body posture and mountain position of people practicing yoga. Biol. Sport, 28: 51-54.
- 9. Grabara M., J.Szopa, D.Grabara (2011) Flexibility of the spine and selected joint in women practising hatha yoga. Pol. J. Sport. Med., 27(1): 61-73.
- 10. Greendale G.A. M.H.Huang, A.S.Karlamangla, L.Seeger, S.Crawford (2009) Yoga Decreases Kyphosis in Senior Women and Men with Adult-Onset Hyperkyphosis: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc., 57: 1569-1579.
- 11. Grey C., R.Young, P.W.Bearcroft, J.E.Compston (1996) Vertebral deformity in thoracic spine in post-menopausal women: value of lumbar spine bone density. Br. J. Radiol. 69: 137-142.
- 12. Huang M.H., E.Barrett-Connor, G.A.Greendale, D.M.Kado (2006) Hyperkyphotic Posture and Risk of Future Osteoporotic Fractures: The Rancho Bernardo Study. J. Bone. Miner. Res., 21(3): 419-423. DOI: 10.1359/ JBMR.051201.[Crossref]
- 13. Jachimowicz V., T.Kostka (2009) Association between physical activity and functional and motor abilities among the elderly. Pol. J. Sport. Med., 25(4): 256-264.
- 14. Jacobs G.D. (2001) Clinical applications of the relaxation response and mind-body interventions. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 7(Suppl.1): 93-101.
- 15. Kabsch A. (2001) Disability accompanies aging challenge for physiotherapy. (In Polish) Fizjoterapia 9(3): 3-19.
- 16. Keysor J.J. (2003) Does late-life physical activity or exercise prevent or minimize disablement? A critical review of the scientific evidence. Am. J. Prevent. Med., 25(3,Suppl 2): 129-136.
- 17. Kraemer J.M., D.Marquez (2009) Psychosocial correlates and outcomes of yoga or walking among older adults. J. Psychol., 143(4): 390-404.
- 18. Kumar C.S. (2009) Comparative effect of specific yogic exercises and combination of specific yogic exercises with autogenic training on vital capacity of the middle aged men. J. Phys. Edu. Sport/Citius Altius Fortius, 25(4): 45-47.
- 19. Ostrowska B., K.Rożek-Mróz, C.Giemza (2003) Body posture in elderly, physical active males. The AgingMale, 6: 222-229.
- 20. Padmini T., S.Chametcha, N.H.Ramarao, R.Nagarathna (2008) Effect of Short-Term Intensive Yoga Program on Pain, Functional Disability and Spinal Flexibility in Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Control Study.J. Altern. Complement. Med., 14(6): 637-644.
- 21. Posadzki P., S.Parekh (2009) Yoga and Physiotherapy: A Speculative Review and Conceptual Synthesis. Chin. J. Integr. Med., 15(1): 66-72.
- 22. Raub J.A. (2002) Psychophysiologic Effects of Hatha Yoga on Musculoskeletal and Cardiopulmonary Function: A Literature Review. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 6: 797-812.
- 23. Rejeski W.J., L.R.Brawley, S.A.Shumaker (1996) Physical activity and health-related quality of life. Exerc. Sport Scie.Rev. 24: 71-108.
- 24. Savić K., D.Pfau, S.Skorić, J.Pfau, N.Spasojević (1990) The effect of Hatha yoga on poor posture in children and the psychophysiologic condition in adults. MedicinskiPregled, 43: 268-272.
- 25. Tran M.D., R.G.Holly, J.Lashbrook, E.A.Amsterdam (2001) Effects of hatha yoga practice on the health- related aspects of physical fitness. Prev. Cardiol., 4: 165-170.
- 26. Vale R.G.S., R.D.Oliveira, C.S.Pernambuco, Y.P.S.F.Meneses, J.S.Novaes, A.F.D.Andrade (2009) Effects of muscle strength and aerobic training on basal serum levels of IGF-1 and cortisol in elderly women. Arch. Gerontol. Geriatr., 49: 343-347.
- 27. Williams K.A., J.Petronis, D.Smith, D.Goodrich, J.Wu, N.Ravi, E.J.Doyle, J.R.Gregory, K.M.Munoz, R.Gross, L.Steinberg (2005) Effect of Iyengar yoga therapy for chronic low back pain. Pain, 115(1/2): 107-117.
- 28. Zwierzchowska A., K.Gawlik, J.Dudek, J.Graca, D.Palica (2008) Evaluation of body posture in first years students of the University of Economist in Katowice. Pol. J. Sport. Med., 24: 37-44.