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2004 | 2 | 1 | 132-146
Tytuł artykułu

On the mechanism of the runaway of electrons in a gas: The upper branch of the paschen curve

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
Basing on the simulation results, it is shown that the Townsend mechanism of electron multiplication in a gas at sufficiently large interelectrode distances is valid at least up to such large values of E/p at which relativistic electrons are generated. Correspondingly, the runaway electron producing in a gas is determined not by the local criteria accepted presently, but by the ratio of interelectrode distance and the characteristic electron multiplication length. It is shown that the critical discharge voltage U, at which the runaway electrons appear in a given gas, is a function of the product of the interelectrode distance by the gas pressure. This function (U-pd dependence) defines not only well-known Paschen curve but also an additional branch, which describes the absence of a self-sustained discharge at a high voltages sufficiently rapidly supplied across the electrodes. Critical discharge voltage dependence for helium and xenon are presented.
Wydawca

Czasopismo
Rocznik
Tom
2
Numer
1
Strony
132-146
Opis fizyczny
Daty
wydano
2004-03-01
online
2004-03-01
Twórcy
  • General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Vavilova St. 38, 119991, Moscow, Russia
  • General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Vavilova St. 38, 119991, Moscow, Russia, syakov@kapella.gpi.ru
Bibliografia
  • [1] R.G. Giovanelli: “Electron Energies resulting from an Electric Field in a Higly Ionized Gas”, Philos. Mag., Vol. 40, (1949), pp. 206–214.
  • [2] H. Dreicer: “Electron and Ion Runaway in a Fully Ionized Gas. I, II.”, Phys. Rev., Vol. 115, (1959), pp. 238–249; Phys. Rev., Vol. 117, (1960), pp. 329–342. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.115.238[Crossref]
  • [3] R.M. Kurlsrud, Y.C. Sun, N.K. Winson, and H.A. Fallon: “Runaway Electrons in a Plasma”, Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 31, (1973), pp. 690–693. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.31.690[Crossref]
  • [4] A.V. Gurevich: “On the theory of runaway electrons”, Zh. Éksp. Teor. Fiz., Vol. 39, (1960), pp. 1296–1307; Sov. Phys. JETP, Vol. 12, (1960), pp. 904–912.
  • [5] V.S. Marchenko and S. I. Yakovlenko: “About influence of deviation of electron distributions from Maxwell distribution on a degree of ionization and accuracy of diagnostics of impurity in plasma with Joule heating”, Fiz. Plazmy (Moscow) Vol. 5, (1979), pp. 590–599; Sov. J. Plasma Phys., Vol. 5, (1979), pp. 331–340.
  • [6] L.P. Babich, T.V. Loiko and V.A. Tsukerman: “High-voltage nanosecond discharge in dense gases at big overvoltage, developing in a mode of electron runaway”, Usp. Fiz. Nauk, Vol. 160(7), (1990), pp. 49–82; Sov. Phys. Usp., Vol. 33, (1990), pp. 521–560. [Crossref]
  • [7] Yu.D. Korolev and G.A. Mesyats: The Physics of Pulse Breakdown, Nauka, Moscow, 1991.
  • [8] G.V. Kolbychev, P.D. Kolbycheva and I.V. Ptashnik: “Glow discharge with runaway electrons at borderline voltage”, Zh. Tekh. Fiz., Vol. 66(2), (1996), pp. 59–64; Tech. Phys., Vol. 41, (1996), pp. 144–148.
  • [9] A.R. Sorokin: “Forming of electron beams in open discharge”, Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz., Vol. 26(24) (2000), pp. 89–94; Tech. Phys. Lett., Vol. 26, (2000), pp. 721–725.
  • [10] A.R. Sorokin: “Whether the open discharge photoelectronic is?’, Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz., Vol. 28(9), (2002), pp. 14–21; Tech. Phys. Lett., Vol. 28, (2002), pp. 361–367.
  • [11] A.P. Bokhan and P.A. Bokhan: “The mechanism of the anomalous high efficiency of an electronic beam generation in the open discharge”, Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz., Vol. 28(11), (2002), pp. 21–27; Tech. Phys. Lett., Vol. 28, (2002), pp. 454–459.
  • [12] V.I. Derzhiev, V.F. Tarasenko, S.I. Yakovlenko and A.M. Yancharina: “Penning plasma lasers on transitions in helium and a neon”, In: S.I. Yakovlenko (Ed.): Plasma Lasers of Visual and Near Ultraviolet Ranges, Nauka, Moscow, 1989, pp. 5–43.
  • [13] S.I. Yakovlenko: “Gas and plasma lasers”, In: V.E. Fortov (Ed.): An Encyclopedia of Low-Temperature Plasma, Nauka/Interperiodika, Moscow, 2000, p. 262–291.
  • [14] Yu.P. Raizer: The Physics of Gas Discharge, 2nd Ed., Nauka, Moscow, 1992.
  • [15] A.N. Tkachev and S.I. Yakovlenko: “Cathode layer parameters in high-pressure Xe excilamp”, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 4747, (2002), pp. 271–278; Laser Phys. Vol. 12(7), (2002), pp. 1022–1028.
  • [16] E. Krishnakumar and S.K. Srivastava: “Ionization cross sections of rare-gas atoms by electron impact”, J. Phys. B, Vol. 21(6), (1988), pp. 1055–1082. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0953-4075/21/6/014[Crossref]
  • [17] D.V. Fursa and I. Bray: “Calculation of electron-helium scattering”, Phys. Rev. A, Vol. 52(2), (1995), pp. 1279–1297. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.52.1279[Crossref]
  • [18] J.C. Nickel, K. Imre, D.F. Register and S. Trajmar: “Total electron scattering cross sections: I. He, Ne, Ar, Xe”, J. Phys. B, Vol. 18(1), (1985), pp. 125–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0022-3700/18/1/015[Crossref]
  • [19] A.L. Ward: “Calculation of Cathode-Fall Characteristics”, Jorn. Appl. Physics. V., Vol. 33(9), (1962), pp. 2789–2794. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1702550[Crossref]
  • [20] F.M. Penning: “Nieuwe metingen over de doorslagspanningen van edelgassen”, Physica. V., Vol. 12(4), (1932), pp. 65–81.
  • [21] A.N. Dikdji and B.N. Kl'anfeld: “Voltage of the discharge ignition in He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe at low pressures”, Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz., Vol. 28(6), (1955), pp. 1038–1044.
  • [22] L.G. Guseva and B.N. Kl'anfeld: “Voltage of the discharge ignition in mercury vapours”, Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz., Vol. 24(7), (1954), pp. 1169–1178.
  • [23] A.N. Tkachev and S.I. Yakovlenko: “On the mechanismof the runaway of electrons in a gas”, JETP Letters, Vol. 77(5), (2003), pp. 221–225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/1.1574835[Crossref]
  • [24] V.F. Tarasenko, S.I. Yakovlenko, V.M. Orlikovskii, A.N. Tkachev and S.A. Shunailov: “Production of Powerful Electron Beams in Dense Gases”, JETP Letters, Vol. 77(11), (2003), pp. 611–615. http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/1.1600816[Crossref]
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
Identyfikatory
Identyfikator YADDA
bwmeta1.element.-psjd-doi-10_2478_BF02476277
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