Sport for All Frail Bodies
Sport for All is a universal Olympic idea adopted by supranational institutions such as the Council of Europe, UNESCO, and the UN. Measures that need to be taken to ensure that all people have an equal opportunity to be included in sport are analyzed and discussed based upon a survey of sports and exercise participation in Denmark with a special focus upon people with impairments. The prevailing point of view is a special needs approach to sports participation, whether it is oriented towards separate or integrated forms of organization. It is often unclear whether this approach is aiming for equality of outcome, equality of chance or just a minimum threshold for sports and exercise activity. However, if we adopt a universal approach to Sport for all, then the focus is not on differences among people, but upon the commonalities among human beings in light of their diversity. This approach is associated with the understanding of “universal design” in the UN‟s Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the WHO‟s International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. In conclusion, it is highlighted that a more inclusive Sport for All movement is preferable to a segregated or integrated disability sport, provided the persons concerned have a say in every case.
- University of Southern Denmark Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics Campusvej 55 DK-5230 Odense M ,Denmark, email@example.com
- Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly (2015). 32(1), ed. by Hutzler, Y.
- Claeys, U. (1982). Rationalising Sports Policies. Sport in European Society: A transnational survey into participation and motivation. Strasbourg: Committee for the Development of Sport.
- Coubertin, P. de (1967). The Olympic Idea: Discourses and Essays. Schorndorf near Stuttgart: Verlag Karl Hofmann.
- Council of Europe (1970). Sport for All: Five countries report. Strasbourg: Committee for the Development of Sport.
- Damgaard, M., Steffensen, T. & Bengtsson, S. (2013). Hverdagsliv og levevilkår for mennesker med funktionsnedsættelse /Everyday life and living conditions for people with impairment/. Copenhagen: SFI - Det Nationale Forskningscenter for Velfærd.
- DePauw, K. & Shirrell, C. (1994). Adapted physical activity: Present and future. Physical Education Review, 17, 6-13.
- Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma. Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall Inc.
- Hansen, E.J. de P. (2012). Guidelines on Bulding Regulatives 2010. Copenhagen: Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut.
- Hansen, J. (2015). The Origin of the Term Handicap in Games and Sports - History of a Concept. Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research, 65, 7-13. DOI: 10.1515/pcssr -2015-0006.[Crossref]
- Imrie, R. (2012). Universalism, universal design and equitable access to the built environment. Disability & Rehabilitation, 34(10), 873-882.[WoS]
- International Federation of Adapted Physical Activity (IFAPA: 2004). By Laws. Retrieved March 2, 2015, from http://www.ifapa.biz/imgs/uploads/PDF/IFAPA%20By-Laws.pdf
- Martin, J.J. (2013). Benefits and barriers to physical activity for individuals with disabilities: a social-relational model of disability perspective. Disabil Rehabil, 35(24), 2030-2037.[PubMed][Crossref]
- Minow, M. (1990). Making all the difference: inclusion, exclusion, and American law. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
- Ramsland, L.T. (2015). With Nature and the Outdoors as a Resource: A Case of a One-Footed Elderly Man in a Wheelchair. Physical Culture and Sport Studies and Research, 65, 24-30. DOI: 10.1515/pcssr -2015-0008.[Crossref]
- Reid, G. (2003). Defining adapted physical activity. In R.D.Steadward, G.D.Wheeler & E.J.Watkinson (Eds.), Adapted Physical Activity (pp. 11-25). Edmonton: University of Alberta Press.
- Rimmer, J.H., Braddock, D. & Pitetti, K.H. (1996). Research on physical activity and disability: an emerging national priority. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 28(11), 1366-1372.[PubMed]
- Rimmer, J.H., Riley, B., Wang, E., Rauworth, A. & Jurkowski, J. (2004). Physical activity participation among persons with disabilities. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 26(5), 419-425.[Crossref]
- Sport for Development and Peace International Working Group (2008). Harnessing the Power of Sport for Development and Peace: Recommendations to Governments. Toronto: Right to Play International.
- Steinfeld, E. & Maisel, J.L. (2012). Universal Design: Creating Inclusive Environments. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons.
- Tauke, B. (2006). UDid Universal Design Identity Project. Final Report. Buffalo, N.Y.: IDeA Center.
- Tweedy, S.M. & Vanlandewijk, Y.C. (2011). International Paralympic Committee position stand - background and scientific principles of classification in Paralympic Sport. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45(4), 259-269.[WoS][Crossref]
- UNESCO (1978). International Charter of Physical Education and Sport. Paris: UNESCO.
- United Nation (2006). Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities. Retrieved March 26, 2015 from http://www.un.org/disabilities/default.asp?id=150
- WHO (2004). Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity, and Health. Retrieved March 26, 2015, http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/en/
- Vonnegut, K. (1961). Harrison Bergeron. Retrieved March 2, 2015, from http://archive.org/stream/HarrisonBergeron/Harrison%20Bergeron_djvu.txt
- Zola, I.K. (1989). Toward the Necessary Universalizing of a Disability Policy. The Milbank Quarterly, 67(Suppl.2, Pt. 2), 401-428.
- Østerlund, K., Ryding, K. & Jespersen, E. (2014). Idræt, fritid og helbred for mennesker med funktionsnedsættelse /Sports, Leisure, and Health for People with Impairments/. Odense: Center for Handicap og Bevægelse, Syddansk Universitet.