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2015 | 65 | 1 | 7-13
Tytuł artykułu

The Origin of the Term Handicap in Games and Sports – History of a Concept

Autorzy
Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
Words and concepts may change in time, and this has certainly been the case with the term handicap. From the establishment of modern sports in the middle of the 19th century and up until the middle of the 20th century, handicap had an entirely different meaning within sports. Thus, handicap was understood as a disadvantage imposed on talented contestants to make the competition more equal in sports. Later the term handicap became much closer related to the concepts invalid and crippled than to concept originally employed within sports, With the gradual introduction of the welfare state measures to the political agenda the politicians in Denmark also started to take an interest in invalids and cripples and in 1925 the National Association of the Crippled and Maimed was founded. By the end of the 20 century the term crippled was seen by many as outdated and in 1988 the name was changed to the Danish Association for the Disabled (Dansk Handicap Forbund) and already in 1971 this organization helped to found The Danish Disabled Sports Association (Dansk Handicap Idræts-Forbund). The article tells the story of how the concept of handicap, which originally was an aim to provide equal opportunities, today has become a synonym for disability, while in the Paralympics and competitive disability sports, the original sports term handicap has been replaced by classification.
Słowa kluczowe
Wydawca

Rocznik
Tom
65
Numer
1
Strony
7-13
Opis fizyczny
Daty
wydano
2015-03-01
online
2015-04-10
Twórcy
autor
  • University of Southern Denmark Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics Campusvej 55 DK-5230,Odense M, Denmark, jhansen@health.sdu.dk
Bibliografia
  • Andersen, A. L., et al. (Eds). (1945). Dansk Sportsleksikon /Danish Sports Lexicon/. Copenhagen, Denmark: Standard Forlaget.
  • Betænkning nr. 228. (1959). Betænkning om Invalideforsikringen afgivet af Invalideforsikringskommissionen af 1956. /Report on the invalidity insurance offered by Disability Insurance Commission of 1956/. Retrieved 12, 05, 2014 from http://www.statensnet.dk/betaenkninger/0201-0400/0228-1959/0228-1959_pdf/searchable_228-1959.pdf
  • Blok, P. (1995). Højesterets dom af 21. December 1994 om Foreningsnavneret /Supreme Court ruling of 21 December 1994 on Association law/. Ugeskrift for Retsvæsen U.1995B.418.
  • Danske Handicaporganisationer. (2014). Historien om konventionens tilblivelse /The story of the Convention genesis/. Retrieved 12, 04, 2014 from http://www.handicap.dk/politik/rettigheder/fn-konventionen/historien; http://www.handicap.dk/om-dh/historie/oversigt
  • Dansk Handicap Forbund. (2015). Retrieved 01, 05, 2015 from http://danskhandicapforbund.dk/fakta/historie
  • Dansk Handicap Idræts-Forbund. (2015). Retrieved 01, 05, 2015 from http://www.dhif.dk/FrontPage/?id=58
  • Den Danske Ordbog. (2015). Retrieved 01, 05, 2015 from http://ordnet.dk/ddo/ordbog?query=handicapFyensStiftstidende. News Paper (31 December 2007).
  • Golf.dk. (2015). Retrieved 01, 05, 2015 from www.golf.dk/node/1050
  • Hansen, J. (1989). Sportens vej til Danmark - Hestevæddeløb /Sport route to Denmark - Horse Racing/. In E. Trangbæk (Ed.), Den engelske sports gennembrud i Norden /The breakthrough of English sports in the Nordic region/ (pp. 163-172). Viborg: Dansk Idrætshistorisk Forening.
  • Howe, P. D. (2012). Disabled and sport. In J. Nauright & C. Parrish (Eds.), Sports around the world: History, culture, and practice. Vol. 1. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio.
  • Kloeren, M. (1985). Sport und Rekord. Kultursoziologische Unetrsuchungen zum England des sechzehnten bis achtzehnten Jahrhunderts /Sports and record. Cultural Sociological Unetrsuchungen to England in the sixteenth to the eighteenth century/. Münster, Germany: Lit Verlag
  • Lund, J. (Ed.). (1994-2006). Den store danske Encyklopædi bd. 4 /The great Danish Encyclopaedia Vol. 4th/. Copenhagen, Denmark: Danmarks Nationalleksikon.
  • Michelsen, G. (1830). Om Væddeløbene ved Augustenborg i Aarene 1829 og om Stutteriet samme sted. /About Aries races at Augustenborg in the years 1829 and Stud same place/. Copenhagen, Denmark: Småskrifter.
  • Nordisk Familjeboks Sportlexicon. (1940). Uppslagsverk för Sport, Gymnastik och Friluftsliv /Encyclopedias for Sport, Exercise and Outdoor Recreation/. Stockholm, Norway: Nordisk Familjeboks Förlags.
  • Paralympics. (2015a). Retrieved 01, 05, 2015 from http://www.paralympic.org/the-ipc/history-of-the-movement
  • Paralympics. (2015b). Retrieved 01, 05, 2015 from http://www.paralympic.org/classification
  • Petersen, J. H., Petersen, K., & Christiansen, N. F. (Eds.). (2011). Dansk Velfærdshistorie. Mellem skøn og ret, bd. II Perioden 1898-1933 /Danish Welfare history. Between discretion and right, Vol. II period 1898-1933/. Odense, Denmark: Syddansk Universitetsforlag.
  • Polley, M. (Ed.). (2004). The history of sport in Britain 1880-1914: Volume IV. Sport and Money. London, England: Routledge.
  • Salomonsens Konservationsleksikon. (1920). Anden Udgave 1915-1930 /Second Edition 1915-1930/. Copenhagen, Denmark: Schultz Forlagsboghandel.
  • Østerlund, K., Ryding, K., & Jespersen, E. (2014). Idræt, fritid og helbred for mennesker med funktionsnedsættelse /Sports, leisure and health for people with disabilities/.Odense, Denmark: Idræt og Biomekanik, Syddansk Universitet
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
Identyfikatory
Identyfikator YADDA
bwmeta1.element.-psjd-doi-10_1515_pcssr-2015-0006
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