The Assessment of the Quality of Life in Visually Impaired People with Different Level of Physical Activity
Quality of life (QOL) is associated with factors such as health, physical functioning, life satisfaction, a sense of happiness, and others. In case of disabled people, much attention is paid to their QOL rather than only the improvement of physiological variables. In a group of blind and visually impaired people, the effect of physical activity (PA) on the socialization process, the ability to explore own personality traits, developing creativity, and more motivation and desire to overcome the difficulties associated with visual impairment were observed. The study involved 53 people: visually impaired (NT) sedentary lifestyle people (n=18; 51±12 years) and visually impaired tandem cycling athletes (N) (n=17; 42±13 years). Properly sighted people (P) (n=18; 38±12 years) were partners in tandem with visually impaired athletes. To determine the level of PA, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used. The WHO-Quality of Life (WHO-QOL-BREF), the National Eye Institute 25-item Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25, version 2000), and the Retina AMD Poland Association questionnaire were used to assess QOL. In visually impaired athletes, significantly greater PA with moderate intensity, moving by bike, and energy expenditure for vigorous recreational exercise and sport in leisuretime was found. Sedentary lifestyle people mainly participated in moderate physical activity around the house. Significant greater satisfaction with health was observed in the case of visually impaired athletes in comparison with NT. All disabled groups rarely had negative feelings such as despair, depression, and anxiety. Moderate correlations between variables according to physical activity and quality of life in all participants were observed. The meaningfulness of life and life satisfaction also depended on cycling training and moderate physical activity around the house. The obtained data indicate that all available forms of regular PA in visually impaired people could have a beneficial effect on their quality of life.
- Jozef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Poland
- conception and design of the study
- acquisition of data
- analysis and interpretation of data
- manuscript preparation
- Department of Sports Medicine Jozef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw Marymoncka 34, 00-968 Warsaw, Poland Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Akademicka 2 21-500 Biała Podlaska, Poland , firstname.lastname@example.org
- conception and design
- analysis and interpretation of data
- manuscript preparation
- obtaining funding
- Auxter, D., Pyfer, J., & Huettig, C. (1997). Principles and Methods of Adapted Physical Education and Recreation. St. Louis, MO: Mosby - Year Book, Inc.
- Blachura, B., Blacha, R., & Stefanowska, M. (2010). Psychosocial aspects of downhill skiing in visually impaired people. Science Dissertations of the University of Physical Education in Wroclaw, 31, 395-406.
- Booth, M.L. (2000). Assessment of physical activity: An international perspective. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 71(2), 114-120.
- Chen, C-C, & Lin, S-Y (2010). The impact of rope jumping exercise on physical fitness of visually impaired students. Research In Developmental Disabilities, 32 (1), 25-29.
- Daszykowska, J. (2006). Quality of life in the health-related concepts. The University of Rzeszow Medical Review, 2, 122-128 /in Polish/.
- De Vries, J., & Van Heck, G.L. (1997). The World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Instrument (WHOQOL-100): Validation study with the Dutch version. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 13, 164-161.[Crossref]
- Dehkordi, A.G. (2011). The comparison between athlete females and non-athlete females regarding to general health, mental health, and quality of life. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 1737-1741.
- Di Cagno, A., Iuliano, E., Aquino, G., et al. (2013). Psychological well-being and social participation assessment in visually impaired subjects playing Torball: A controlled study. Research In Developmental Disabilities, 34(4), 1204-1209.
- Gąciarz, B., Ostrowska, A., & Pańków, W. (2008). Social Integration and Occupation Activation of Disabled People Living in Small Towns and Rural Areas, Determinants of Success and Failure. IFiS PAN /in Polish/.
- Groff, D. G., & Zabriskie, R. B. (2006). An exploratory study of athletic identity among elite Alpine skiers with physical disabilities: Issues of measurement and design. Journal of Sport Behavior, 29, 126-141.
- Hagströmer, M., Oja, P., & Sjöström, M. (2006). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ): a study of concurrent and construct validity. Public Health Nutrition, 9(6), 755-762.[Crossref][WoS]
- Hajloo, N., & Pezeshki, H. (2013). Compare happiness, psychological tenacity, and sensation seeking among athletes and no athletes. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 84(9), 1063-1066.
- National Eye Institute. (1996, July). National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire - 25 (VFQ-25). Retrieved May, 2013, from: http://www.nei.nih.gov/resources/visionfunction/vfq_ia.pdfRetina AMD Poland. Retrieved May, 2013, from: http://www.retinaamd.org.pl/
- Karakaya, I.C., Aki, E., & Ergun, N. (2009). Physical fitness of visually impaired adolescent goalball players. Percept Motor Skills, 108, 129-136.
- Karwat, D., Jabłoński, L., & Krupa, S. (2000). The dependence of the life comfort level in people with disabilities on family and social environment. In D. Karwat (Ed.), Adults’ Disability and Rehabilitation as a Medical and Social Problem in Poland (pp. 182-186). Lublin, AM.
- Kuru, E., & Karahan, B.G. 2008. Physiological requirements of wheelchair and running basketball players. Selçuk University Journal for Physical Education and Sports Sciences, 10 (2), 23-30.
- Langelaan, M., de Boer, M.R., van Nispen, R.M.A., et. al. (2007). Impact of visual impairment on quality of life: a comparison with quality of life in the general population and with other chronic conditions. In M. Langelaan (Ed.), Quality of Life of Visually Impaired Working Age Adults (pp. 105-124). The Netherlands: Print Partners.
- Langelaan, M., van Nispen, R.M.A., Knol, D.L., et.al. (2007). Visual Functioning Questionnaire: Re-evaluation of psychometric properties for a group of working age adults. In M. Langelaan (Ed.), Quality of Life of Visually Impaired Working Age Adults (pp. 125-149). The Netherlands: Print Partners.
- Midha, M., Schmitt, J.K., & Sclater, M. (1999). Exercise effect with the wheelchair aerobic fitness trainer on conditioning and metabolic function in disabled persons: A pilot study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 80(3), 258-261.[Crossref]
- Mikkelsen, S.S., Tolstrup, J.S., Flachs, E., et al. (2010). A cohort study of leisure time physical activity and depression. Preventive Medicine, 51, 471-475.
- Morelli, T., Folmer, E., Foley, J.T., et al. (2011). Improving the Lives of Youth with Visual Impairments through Exergames. Fall, 4(4), 160-170.
- Mouratidis, A., & Michou, A. (2011). Perfectionism, self-determined motivation, and coping among adolescent athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12(4), 355-367.[WoS][Crossref]
- Movahedi, A., Mojtahedi, H., & Farazyani, F. (2011). Differences in socialization between visually impaired studentathletes and non-athletes. Research In Developmental Disabilities, 32(1), 58-62.
- Özer, D. (2001). Physical Education and Sports For Disabled People (pp. 4-21). Ankara: Nobel Publication Distribution.
- Silva, G.P., Pereira, V.R., Deprá, P.P. et al. (2010). Tempo de reação e a eficiência do jogador de goalballnainterceptação/defesa do lançamento/ataque/Reaction time and efficiency of the goalball player in interception/defense of throwing/attack/. Motricidade, 6 (4), 13-22.
- Ströhle, A. (2009). Physical activity, exercise, depression and anxiety disorders.Journal of Neural Transmission, 116, 777-784.
- Tasiemski, T., Wilski, M., & Mędak, K. (2012). An assessment of athletic identity in blind and able-bodied tandem cyclists. Human Movement, 13(2), 178-184.
- Teychenne, M., Ball, K., & Salmon, J. (2008). Physical activity and likelihood of depression in adults: A review. Preventive Medicine, 46, 397-411.[Crossref]
- Wolffsohn, J., Cochrane, A., &Watt, N. (2000). Implementation methods for vision related quality of life questionnaires. British Journal Ophthalmology, 84(9), 1035-1040.[Crossref]