Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2015 | 1 | 1 |
Tytuł artykułu

Optimisation of the emulsion liquid membrane composition and demulsification for rhodium extraction

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
This study was aimed at designing an optimised emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) for the extraction of rhodium from precious metal refinery wastewaters. The demulsification process and the structure of the optimised ELM are reported on. Two optimised ELMs were prepared. The first one contained a 30 % solution of toluene in kerosene as diluent with the following concentrations of the ELM components: 30.000 g/L (w/v) polyisobutylene, 10.870 g/L (m/v) of trioctyl amine and 51.001 g/L (m/v) of SPAN 80. The second ELM contained the same diluent, but the concentrations of the other ELM components in it were as follows: 20.000 g/l of polyisobutylene, 10.268 g/l trioctyl amine and 50.024 g/l of SPAN 80. The stripping phase was the same in both optimised ELMs, namely a 2 M solution of HNO3. The stripping phase and the diluent solution were mixed together in ratios of 1:1 and 2:1, respectively. Two methods were used to characterise the microdroplet diameters, i.e. optical microscopy and the Zeta-sizer. For the t-test, the p-value of 0.3018 at 5 % level of significance showed that there was statistically no significant difference in the mean micro-droplet size for 1:2 ELMs containing 20 g/l and 30 g/l of polyisobutylene after 40 minutes of emulsification. The best demulsification results were obtained using the chemical demulsification with polyethylene glycol with molecular weight of 400 g/mol (PEG 400) at 50 ± 1 °C for 24 hours. However, significant carryover of toluene, trioctyl amine and polyethylene glycol into the aqueous phase was observed.
Opis fizyczny
  • Division of Pharmaceutical
    Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Rhodes University, P. O. Box 94,
    Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa
  • Division of Pharmaceutical
    Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Rhodes University, P. O. Box 94,
    Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa
  • [1] Matos M, Suárez MA, Gutiérrez G, Coca J, Pazos C. Emulsificationwith microfiltration ceramic membranes: A differentapproach to droplet formation mechanism. J. Membr.Sci.10/1;444(2013) 345-358.
  • [2] Floury J, Legrand J, Desrumaux A. Analysis of a new type of highpressure homogeniser. Part B. Study of droplet break-up andrecoalescence phenomena. Chemical Engineering Science 59(6) (2004)1285-1294.
  • [3] Perrier-Cornet J, Marie P, Gervais P. Comparison of emulsificationefficiency of protein-stabilized oil-in-water emulsionsusing jet, high pressure and colloid mill homogenization. J.Food. Eng.66 (2) (2005)211-217.[Crossref]
  • [4] Tesch S, Schubert H. Influence of increasing viscosity of theaqueous phase on the short-term stability of protein stabilizedemulsions. J. Food. Eng.52 (3) (2002)305-312.[Crossref]
  • [5] Jafari SM, Assadpoor E, He Y, Bhandari B. Re-coalescence ofemulsion droplets during high-energy emulsification. Food.Hydrocoll.10;22 (7) (2008) 1191-1202.[Crossref]
  • [6] Lambrich U, Schubert H. Emulsification using microporoussystems. J. Membr. Sci. 7/15;257 (1–2)(2005) 76-84.
  • [7] Behrend O, Ax K, Schubert H. Influence of continuous phaseviscosity on emulsification by ultrasound. Ultrason. Sonochem.7 (2) (2000)77-85.[Crossref]
  • [8] Mohan S, Narsimhan G. Coalescence of protein-stabilizedemulsions in a high-pressure homogenizer. J. Colloid. InterfaceSci. 192 (1)(1997)1-15.
  • [9] Hiemenz PC, Rajagopalan R. Principles of Colloid and SurfaceChemistry, revised and expanded.: CRC Press., Boca Raton,1997.
  • [10] Li N, Cahn R, Naden D, Lai R. Liquid membrane processes forcopper extraction. Hydrometallurgy ;9 (3) (1983)277-305.[Crossref]
  • [11] Chanukya BS, Rastogi NK. Extraction of alcohol from wine andcolor extracts using liquid emulsion membrane. Separationand Purification Technology2/5;105 (0)(2013):41-47.
  • [12] Sun D, Duan X, Li W, Zhou D. Demulsification of water-in-oilemulsion by using porous glass membrane. J. Membr. Sci.7/22;146 (1)(1998) 65-72.
  • [13] Al-Sabagh AM, Nasser NM, Abd El-Hamid TM. Investigationof Kinetic and Rheological Properties for the DemulsificationProcess. Egyptian Journal of Petroleum 6;22 (1) (2013) 117-127.
  • [14] Kim YH, Wasan DT. Effect of demulsifier partitioning on thedestabilization of water-in-oil emulsions. Ind. Eng. Chem.Res.35(4) (1996)1141-1149.[Crossref]
  • [15] Park Y. Development and Optimization of Novel Emulsion LiquidMembranes Stabilized by Non-Newtonian Conversion in Taylor-Couette Flow for Extraction of Selected Organic and MetallicContaminants. PhD thesis, (2006).
  • [16] Shetty C, Nikolov A, Wasan D, Bhattacharyya B. Demulsificationof water in oil emulsions using water soluble demulsifiers. J.Dispersion. Sci.Technol.13(2) (1992)121-133.[Crossref]
  • [17] Bhardwaj A, Hartland S. Studies on build up of interfacial filmat the crude oil/water interface. J. Dispersion. Sci. Technol.19(4) (1998)465-473.[Crossref]
  • [18] Kovacevic A, Savic S, Vuleta G, Müller R, Keck C. Polyhydroxysurfactants for the formulation of lipid nanoparticles (SLNand NLC): Effects on size, physical stability and particle matrixstructure. Int. J. Pharm. 406 (1)(2011)163-172.
  • [19] Heurtault B, Saulnier P, Pech B, Proust J, Benoit J. Physicochemicalstability of colloidal lipid particles. Biomaterials.24(23) (2003)4283-4300.[Crossref]
  • [20] Tandlich R, Zuma BM. Mutual relationship of Henry’s lawconstants and aqueous phase concentrations for benzene,toluene and o-xylene at 30 degree C. Fresenius. Environ.Bull.21(1) (2012)68-75.
  • [21] Patnaik PR. Liquid emulsion membranes: Principles, problemsand applications in fermentation processes. Biotechnol. Adv.13(2)(1995)175-208.[Crossref]
  • [22] Ahmad AL, Kusumastuti A, Derek CJC, Ooi BS. Emulsion liquidmembrane for heavy metal removal: An overview on emulsionstabilization and destabilization.J. Chem. Eng.7/15;171 (3)(2011) 870-882.
  • [23] Bringas E, San Roman MF, Ortiz I. Separation and recovery ofanionic pollutants by the emulsion pertraction technology.Remediation of polluted groundwaters with Cr (VI). Ind. Eng.Chem. Res.45 (12) (2006):4295-4303.[Crossref]
  • [24] Venkatesan S, Meera Sheriffa Begum KM. Emulsion liquidmembrane pertraction of imidazole from dilute aqueoussolutions by Aliquat-336 mobile carrier. Desalination. 1/31;236(1–3):(2009) 65-77.
  • [25] Gasser M, El-Hefny N, Daoud J. Extraction of Co (II) fromaqueous solution using emulsion liquid membrane. J. Hazard.Mater.151 (2) (2008)610-615.
  • [26] Chiha M, Samar MH, Hamdaoui O. Extraction of chromium (VI)from sulphuric acid aqueous solutions by a liquid surfactantmembrane (LSM). Desalination. 194 (1)(2006)69-80.
  • [27] Sengupta B, Sengupta R, Subrahmanyam N. Copper extractioninto emulsion liquid membranes using LIX 984N-C®. Hydrometallurgy.1;81 (1)(2006)67-73.
  • [28] Sengupta B, Sengupta R, Subrahmanyam N. Process intensificationof copper extraction using emulsion liquid membranes:Experimental search for optimal conditions. Hydrometallurgy.10;84 (1–2)(2006) 43-53.
  • [29] Reis MTA, Carvalho JM. Modelling of zinc extraction fromsulphate solutions with bis [2-ethylhexyl] thiophosphoricacid by emulsion liquid membranes. J. Membr. Sci.237 (1)(2004)97-107.
  • [30] Lee SC. Extraction of succinic acid from simulated media byemulsion liquid membranes. J. Membr. Sci.9/30;381 (1–2)(2011) 237-243.
  • [31] Goyal RK, Jayakumar NS, Hashim MA. Chromium removal byemulsion liquid membrane using (BMIM)+(NTf2)− as stabilizerand TOMAC as extractant. Desalination.9/1;278 (1–3) (2011)50-56.
  • [32] Kumbasar RA. Cobalt–nickel separation from acidic thiocyanateleach solutions by emulsion liquid membranes (ELMs) usingTOPO as carrier. Separation and Purification Technology.8/5;68 (2):(2009) 208-215.
  • [33] Kumbasar RA. Separation and concentration of cobalt fromaqueous thiocyanate solutions containing cobalt–nickel byemulsion liquid membranes using TBP as extractant. J. Membr.Sci. 8/10;338 (1–2)(2009) 182-188.
  • [34] Kumbasar RA. Extraction and concentration of cobalt fromacidic leach solutions containing Co–Ni by emulsion liquidmembrane using TOA as extractant. Journal of Ind. Eng.Chem.16 (3) (2010)448-454.
  • [35] Kumbasar R, Şahin İ. Separation and concentration of cobaltfrom ammoniacal solutions containing cobalt and nickel byemulsion liquid membranes using 5, 7-dibromo-8-hydroxyquinoline(DBHQ). J. Membr. Sci. 325 (2)(2008)712-718.
  • [36] Kumbasar RA. Selective separation of chromium (VI) fromacidic solutions containing various metal ions throughemulsion liquid membrane using trioctylamine as extractant.Separation and Purification Technology.11/20;64 (1) (2008)56-62.
  • [37] Wan Y, Zhang X. Swelling determination of W/O/W emulsionliquid membranes. J. Membr. Sci.2/28;196 (2) (2002) 185-201.
  • [38] Tang B, Yu G, Fang J, Shi T. Recovery of high-purity silverdirectly from dilute effluents by an emulsion liquid membranecrystallizationprocess. J. Hazard. Mater.177 (1) (2010) 377-383.
  • [39] Mortaheb HR, Kosuge H, Mokhtarani B, Amini MH, BanihashemiHR. Study on removal of cadmium from wastewater by emulsionliquid membrane. J. Hazard. Mater. 165 (1)(2009)630-636.
  • [40] García MG, Acosta AO, Marchese J. Emulsion liquid membranepertraction of Cr(III) from aqueous solutions using PC-88A ascarrier. Desalination. 6/3;318 (0)(2013) 88-96.
  • [41] Bhowal A, Bhattacharyya G, Inturu B, Datta S. Continuousremoval of hexavalent chromium by emulsion liquid membranein a modified spray column. Separation and PurificationTechnology.0/8;99(0) (2012) 169-76.
  • [42] Lee SC, Hyun K. Development of an emulsion liquid membranesystem for separation of acetic acid from succinic acid. J.Membr. Sci. 3/15;350(1–2)(2010) 333-339.
  • [43] Skelland A, Meng XM. A new solution to emulsion liquidmembrane problems by non‐Newtonian conversion. AIChE. J.42(2)(1996)547-561.[Crossref]
  • [44] Skelland AHP, (Michael) Meng X. Non-Newtonian conversionsolves problems of stability, permeability, and swellingin emulsion liquid membranes. J. Membr. Sci. 6/1;158(1–2):(1999) 1-15.
  • [45] Kageyama T, Matsumiya H, Hiraide M. Separation of traces ofheavy metals from an iron matrix by use of an emulsion liquidmembrane. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry.379 (7-8)(2004)1083-1087.
  • [46] Matsumiya H, Kageyama T, Hiraide M. Multielement preconcentrationof trace heavy metals in seawater with an emulsioncontaining 8-quinolinol for graphite-furnace atomic absorptionspectrometry. Anal. Chim. Acta.507 (2) (2004)205-209.
  • [47] Ahmad AL, Kusumastuti A, Derek CJC, Ooi BS. Emulsionliquid membrane for cadmium removal: Studies on emulsiondiameter and stability. Desalination. 2/15;287(0)(2012) 30-34.
  • [48] Shen J, Yin W, Zhao Y, Yu L. Extraction of alanine using emulsionliquid membranes featuring a cationic carrier. J. Membr. Sci.10/30;120 (1):(1996) 45-53.
  • [49] Venkatesan S, Meera Sheriffa Begum KM. Emulsion liquidmembrane pertraction of benzimidazole using a roomtemperature ionic liquid (RTIL) carrier.J. Chem. Eng.5/15;148(2–3)(2009) 254-262.
  • [50] Müller RH, Mäder K, Gohla S. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN)for controlled drug delivery–a review of the state of the art.European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics. 50(1) (2000)161-177.
  • [51] Mehnert W, Mäder K. Solid lipid nanoparticles: production,characterization and applications. Adv. Drug. Deliv. Rev. 47(2)(2001)165-196.[Crossref]
  • [52] Radomska-Soukharev A. Stability of lipid excipients in solidlipid nanoparticles. Adv. Drug. Deliv. Rev. 59 (6)(2007)411-418.
  • [53] Freitas C, Müller RH. Effect of light and temperature on zetapotential and physical stability in solid lipid nanoparticle(SLN™) dispersions. Int. J. Pharm.168 (2) (1998)221-229.
  • [54] Uner M. Preparation, characterization and physico-chemicalproperties of solid lipid nanoparticles [SLN] andnanostructured lipid carriers [NLC]: their benefits as colloidaldrug carrier systems. Die Pharmazie-An Int. J. Pharm.61(5)(2006)375-386.
  • [55] Peng W, Jiao H, Shi H, Xu C. The application of emulsion liquidmembrane process and heat-induced demulsification forremoval of pyridine from aqueous solutions. Desalination.286(2012)372-378.
  • [56] Pisarevsky A, Polozova I, Hockridge P. Chemical oxygendemand. Russian Journal of applied chemistry. 78(1)(2005)101-107.
  • [57] Block SS. Disinfection, sterilization and preservation. WoltersKluwer Health.(2001).
  • [58] Kim YH, Wasan DT. Effect of demulsifier partitioning on thedestabilization of water-in-oil emulsions. Ind. Eng. Chem.Res.35(4) (1996)1141-1149.[Crossref]
  • [59] Krawczyk MA, Wasan DT, Shetty C. Chemical demulsification ofpetroleum emulsions using oil-soluble demulsifiers. Ind. Eng.Chem. Res. 30 (2)(1991)367-375.[Crossref]
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.